Yalta conference

Yalta Conference 1945 meeting between Big Three to determine post-war status of Germany and rest of world, but mostly Germany, resulted in division of Germany among them. Creation of UN to replace League of Nations. USSR promises to join war in pacific after Germany falls Harry S. Truman. President 45-53. Decisions made during his administration: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, World Bank, Berlin Airlift, NATO, Point Four, Korean War, decision to drop atom bombs. Favored strong resistance to communism and Soviet expansion. Potsdam Conference/Agreement 1945 in occupied Germany with Big Three, with Truman, Stalin, Attlee after defeat of Germany. Fate of germany. divide and occupy Germany, east to USSR west to UK US, trial of war criminals, Nuremberg, reparations. Truman Doctine Statement by Truman that US would help any country that was being threatened by Communism. It was america’s duty. Aimed towards Greece and Turkey due to severe damage after war. Beginning of policy of containment. Aided France in their resumed colonization of Vietnam, fear of Domino Theory. Precursor to Marshall plan. Triggered by Greece and Turkey possibly falling under Soviet rule due to economic weakness. Characterized Cold War as a conflict between good and evil Marshall Plan 1948 Harry Truman, George Marshall, European Recovery Program. plan for economic recovery in European countries somewhat to stop spread of communism. Spent billions. Poverty breeds communism, European starving. If economy not boosted, Europe would turn communist. Beginning of policy of containment. Aided France in their resumed colonization of Vietnam, fear of Domino Theory. George Marshall Secretary of state under Truman and proponent of Marshall Plan in Europe. Awarded nobel peace prize, secretary of defense during Korean War. Marshall Plan helped rebuild and modernize economy of western Europe after war. Iron Curtain Coined by Churchill in 1946. Iron Curtain has descended across Europe. Political, Ideological and military barrier created by USSR to seal itself and its satellite states from Western influence. George Kennan 1946 wrote “ Long Telegram”. American diplomat in Moscow. Architect of Soviet containment. Argued against friendship with Soviets in favor of creating sphere of influence in Europe to counter Soviet power. Berlin airlift 1948 Result of Berlin Blockade by Soviets cutting off allied railways to Berlin in hope of taking Berlin. Allied cargo planes fly over and drop essential goods to people in west Berlin Republic of Korea South Korea government established 1948 under Rhee as result to Cold war. Result of division of Korea at end of war at 38th parallel. US in south soviets in north. Korean war First Proxy war fought during Cold War. South Korea supported by UN north supported by china and Soviets. Result of physical division of Korea after WWII by allies along 38th parallel. Failure to hold free elections in 1948. North established Communist regime, south had Democratic. North Korea invaded South 1950. US came to aid of South. Drove North past 38th parallel China joined North. Funded by Soviets. America’s forgotten war. War began and ended at 38th parallel. Set tone for cold war. 1950-53. Boosted American military budget enourmously. China Mao Zedong declares foundation of People’s Republic of China, communist adding a quarter of worlds population to communist influence. 1949 Kim Il Sung Father of Communist North Korea. Instigated Korean war in attempt to reunite peninsula. 48-72. NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization founded in order to resist communist expansion 1949. By joining other nations with same interests as US, deters aggression towards US and western Europe. Douglas MacArthur American army general in Pacific and Chief of Staff during 30’s. Led American withdrawal from Philippines beginning of WWII. Helped establish democratic gov’t. in Japan after WWII. Took on North Koreans in Korean war. Fired due to argument with Truman about bridges at Yalu River. Treaty of Paris 1951 establishes coal and steel community. CIA Sponsored coups in Iran 1953 and Guatemala 1954. Overthrew old government to install pro-American governments to curb spread of communism. Created global anger towards US. John Dulles Secretary of state under Eisenhower. Helped devise New Look foreign policy. This emphasized massive retaliation with nuclear weapons, especially against northern Vietnam. New Look National security policy of US during Eisenhower admin. Emphasized use of nuclear weapons to deter potential threats to US from eastern Bloc nations. Eisenhower WWII hero. Supreme commander of NATO, became president in 1953. Committed to fighting communists in Vietnam, resolved Suez Crisis and supported CIA coups in Iran and Guatemala. Ho Chi Minh Communist leader of Viet Minh movement in north Vietnam to free them from French colonial rule. After US failed to recognize Vietnamese government he turned to USSR to throw out French. 1954. JFK Elected 1960. Youngest president ever elected. Sent military advisors to S. Vietnam during 60’s. formed Alliance for Progress to fight communism in Latin America. Backed Bay of Pigs invasion which ultimately led to Cuban Missile Crisis in 1963. Assassinated in office. LBJ took over. Kruschev Leader of Soviet Communist Party and leader of USSR from 1958 to early 1960’s. Toured US and visited with Eisenhower in 1959. Gave hope for eased tensions between US and Soviets. Ruined after U-2 incident and Cuban missile crisis. Joseph McCarthy Republican senetor from WI who accused hundreds of government employees and celebrities in early 50’s of being communists and Soviet spies. Failed to give evidence, in Red Scare it did not matter. Accused army of being procommunist and was humiliated in Army-McCarthy hearings. Died of alcoholism. Gamal Abel Nasser Nationalist/communist president of Egypt who seized Suez Canal from British in 1956 after failure of economic negotiations between Egypt, UK, US. Nationalized Suez canal. Army McCarthy Hearings 1954 senator Joseph McCarthy accused ranking US army officers of being communist spies. Millions of people watched on TV as he humiliated himself after failing to produce any evidence. Finished his political career. Ended Red hunts Bay of Pigs JFK’s failed plan to invade Cuba and defeat revolutionary leader Castro with CIA trained Cubans in 1961. Expected people of Cuba to join on side of US. Reinforced Castro’s power and pushed Cuba to sign treaty with Sovietks which ultimately led to Cuban missile Crisis in 63 Containment US foreign policy that argued that Soviets need to be contained to prevent spread of communism throughout world. Brought to Truman’s attention by Kennan, a former US diplomat. Suggested that US needs to fight communism abroad and promote democracy. Closely related to domino theory. Became cornerstone of American foreign policy throughout Cold war Cuban Missile Crisis After Bay of Pigs, Kruschev capitalized on Cuban mistrust of US and signed treaty with them. Castro sought economic and military support from Soviets. US spy plane caught images of missile silos being built, JFK learned that missiles were en route. Ordered naval blockade of Cuba in 1962. Demanded abortion of plan. Soviets backed down. Resulted in Kruschev being removed from power. Dien Bien Phu Site in Vietnam that fell to communist forces 1954. Led to defeat of France in Vietnam. Geneva Conference split Vietnam into two nations at 17th parallel. Led to Ho Chi Minh establishing Communist government in Norht and US backed Diem in south. Domino Theory Belief that if US allowed one country to fall to Communism, many more would follow. Led to US supporting anti communist regimes throughout world regardless of other ideals or how they treated their people. Reasoning behind Johnson’s escalation of conflict in Vietnam Flexible Response Doctrine of containment that provided for a variety of military and political strategies that the president could use to stem spread of communism. Developed by JFK admin. who thought Eisenhower’s “ massive retaliation” doctrine restricted too many options HUAC Committee established in 1938 to investigate organizations and people who might be linked to Nazis, KKK, and mainly after WWII, those connected with communism. Massive Retaliation Primary component of Eisenhower’s New Look policy that threatened nuclear retaliation against Soviets for any communist aggression abroad. Designed to save money on defense. Downside was that it tied presidents hands in regards to smaller crises. Kennedy dropped this and created flexible response. National Security Act Passed in 1947. Reorganized army and espionage services to be better suited for Soviet threat. This act led to creation of CIA and National Security Council. NSC 68 1950 proposal that US quadruple defense and military spending in order to counter Soviets. Beginning of increase in military budget throughout Cold war. Red Hunts Persecutions of thousands of Americans for being communists or Soviet spies during late 40’s and early 50’s. Led by McCarthy, Nixon. Space Race Cold War competition between US and Soviets for exploration of outer space. Started after Soviets successful Sputnik satellite was launched in 1957. Prompted Eisenhower to form NASA and Kennedy’s push to land on moon. Sputniks First orbiting space satellites from Soviets. Scared America. Launch of these resulted in NASA being created and the pass of the National Defense Education Act. Which provided money to science and foreign language in schools. Suez Crisis Erupted after Nasser seized and nationalized Canal in 1956 after negotiations for aid failed. Eventually led to closer relations between Egypt and Soviets. U2 incident Crisis that arose after Soviets shot down a spy plane flying over USSR in 1960. Eisenhower denied it until Kruschev mentioned captured pilot. Collapse of potential peace between the two countries. Warsaw Pact Signed by USSR and eastern European countries under Soviet influence in 1955. Pledged mutual defense to one another. This pact was created as a response to the formation of NATO *