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Global and Historical Studies –China Unit Exam of the of the Global and Historical Studies –China Unit Exam Section I: Discussion of Terms
1. Gang of Four: This was the name given to a political group consisting of four Chinese Communist Party officials. Jiang Qing, Mao Zedong’s last wife led the group, and the other members were her close associates Wang Hongwen, Zhang Chungiao and Yao Wenyuan. They controlled the strings of power in the Communist Party during the last days of the Cultural Revolution led by Mao, and did most of the planning as well. They were subsequently arrested about a month after Mao’s death- in August 1976, and put on trial for alleged crimes against the Communist Party that had resulted in ten years of turmoil before Deng Xiopang and other supporters assumed charge once again.
2. Hsun Tzu: Hsun Tzu was a school of learning created under the name of an ancient Chinese scholar Husn K’uang (358-235 BCE) who was inspired by the teachings of Confucius. This school of thought holds that man is neither inherently good or bad, however humans are born with certain dreams and aspirations that need to be controlled or it will result in conflict. Human nature is by nature evil and goodness can be acquired only through training and following moral laws (history. cultural-china. com).
3. Hu Jintao: Hu Jintao has been the current leader of the Communist Party of China since 2002, the President of the People’s Republic of China since 2003 and Chairman of China’s Central Military Commission since 2004. He is a pragmatic technocrat known for his reserved low key leadership style.
Hsun Tzu and his Doctrine (2011). Accessed on 27 July 2011 at http://history. cultural-china. com/en/165History9075. html