Using of microorganisms like bacteria and yeast biology essay

1. 0 Introduction

Biotechnological procedures have been employed over eras to produce human’s necessary foods. Using of microorganisms like bacteria and yeast have been done by earlier people without even knowing of their presence. Nowadays, there is only little information available about the specific characteristics of genetic background of most of the organisms that may include in the process of fermentation as an example. New techniques of biotechnology offer a chance to translate different kinds of genes into a variety of organisms. In addition to biotechnology, genetically modified organisms can be applied in to other field of sciences such as medical and biological (Hemmer 1997). During last two decades genetically modified organisms have been used noticeably in the field of agriculture in many countries especially the developed ones, in 2008 about 125 million hectares of genetically modified crops has been grown, while this increased into 134 million and 148 million hectares in both 2009 and 2010 respectively (FSA 2012). Consumers’ perception towards GMO products is different from one country to another for many reasons. For example, in America, people tend to consume GM foods/products more than the European countries because of the following reasons: media effects, trust in regulators, and having a vast knowledge of this new technology (Gaskell et al. 1999). In spite of the benefits of biotechnology for producing (GMOs) and its vast application in different areas such as agriculture, pharmacy, biofuels and biomaterials. There are also some drawbacks. For example, it has became a very controversial issue in many countries and there are lots of discussions about it especially in terms of safety and environment issues. (Agnihorti 2009).

1. 2 Producing System of Genetically Modified Organisms

In our life, there are many different types of creations. These creatures are completely different morphologically and physically. Some of them are very simple in creatures and small in size such as bacteria and viruses, while others are more sophisticated and developed like humans. These organisms are set up of cells which are the basis of the structure of all these creatures. Each cell is covered by a membrane called cell membrane and nucleus present inside it. A unique instruction is saved on DNA (Deoxy ribo nuclic acid). Each DNA consists of a small parts known as genes (Agnihorti 2009). Naturally, transfer of gene from one living organism to another may occur only between the same species or between organisms which are closer to each other. While as a result of the advancement of technology, biologists and researchers have a chance to understand how to produce plants or organisms with new traits by transferring a special gene from one living organism into another successfully (Burke 1998). Genes can be translated from one living organism to another by a process called gene technology or recombinant DNA, and the result called ‘‘ genetically modified’’ or ‘‘ genetically engineered,’’ or ‘’genetically organisms’’. The production of genetically engineered foods/products needs to add a new DNA into the plant’s genomic DNA. This process called transformation ‘ event’. This new DNA has all information needed to produce the product with new required characteristics (Griffiths et al. 2002).

1. 2. 1 The purposes of Genetically Modified Organisms

The production of genetically modified crops such as corn, soy, cotton, payama, rice, tomato, potato, canola, peas, repressed and diary products has increased noticeably all over the world due to the fact that genetically modified products has many advantages for both producers and consumers. The main characteristics in (GMO) crops are: lower price, high nutritional value and durable products (WHO 2013). There are many purposes and objectives behind the development of genetically modified crops as shown below: Herbicide Tolerance Plants: is produced by the transferring a gene from resistant bacteria to some herbicides into the required plant. In this case the new plant has the ability to tolerate the herbicides while the weeds will be controlled (Rissler and Mellon 1996). Virus Resistant Plants: to produce a genetically modified crop resistance to virus which cause diseases, there is the need to transfer a special gene into the plant. By this way a resistant plant will be produced which led to high crop yield (Agnihorti 2009). Insect Resistance: in this case the genetically modified crops have the ability to resist insecticides and this can be achieved by transferring a toxin gene from the bacterium B. thuringgiensis (Bt) into the plant. This toxin is non-harmful for human consumption. By this way the GM plants which produce this toxin permanently do not need high quantities of insecticide (Slater et al. 2008).

1. 2. 2 Application area of Genetically Modified Organisms

Due to the fact that biotechnology has developed and scientists have sufficient knowledge about DNA structure and genes and how it can be transferred. This gives scientists the ability to apply in many different areas and fields as shown below: Agriculture: The main reasons for applying GMOs in the field of agriculture are to produce plant resistant to pests, herbicides, improved shelf life and also to give plants the ability to tolerate tough environmental conditions. This is achieved by transfering a specific gene into the plant. For instance, transfer of a toxin gene from bacterium Bacillus ( Bt ) into the plant. This toxin is safe for human consumption. By this way the GM plants which produce this toxin permanently do not need high quantities of insecticide. The second field is Pharmacy: Application of GMOs in the field of pharmaceutical sector gives chance to scientists to produce drugs and vaccines in industrical scale in a short period . Otherwise the process would take a long durations and also more expensive. For example, yeast or such bacteria can produce drugs and vaccines in high quantities and in much more efficient way. It can be also applied in Biomaterials area, GMOs are mainly used in the health area, surgery, treatment and dental. Moreover, genetically modified organisms may apply in the field of Biofuels to produce biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels (Anon 2008).