The fact that smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important avoidable causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes, resulting in serious short and long-term negative effects for the mother and the fetus have been demonstrated by many different studies. It can be considered as the first important environmental risk factor that the unborn can find in the developed and undeveloped world. If compared to other risk factors in the perinatal period, exposure to tobacco smoke is considered one of the most harmful. It is believed that byproducts of combustion cause more harm to the fetus than nicotine itself, but due to the complexity and quantity of hazardous substances it is unknown what toxic effect is caused by exactly what product. This is especially significant since most of the damage induced by smoking for the unborn fetus is permanent. Even today modern medicine offers very little or no therapeutic treatment for the long-term negative consequences of being exposed to smoke in the uterus. The damage induced by smoking for the unborn offspring is manifested several times in life, some are clearly visible from birth, others are evident only in the next generation.
Our writers will create one from scratch for
These diseases have one thing in common: the vast majority of them are permanent and for the majority, there is only a very limited range of causal treatment. For many of these diseases, only symptomatic therapeutic treatments are available at best. Heart disease and cardiovascular disease: the risk of congenital heart defects of the fetus is related, at least partially, to exposure to maternal smoking at the beginning of pregnancy or that is directly related to maternal smoking during pregnancy Smoking during pregnancy is an important and preventable factor that affects ectopic pregnancy, placental abruption, placenta previa and PMRP.
The findings of the apparently protective effect of smoking on preeclampsia should be balanced with these harmful effects. In addition, the biological link between smoking and preeclampsia is still not well understood. Pregnant women should be advised to stop smoking to reduce the overall risk of complications during pregnancy, as well as any risk of adverse impact on the fetus. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal STD exposure can cause subtle changes in children’s neurological development and behavior, such as reduced general intellectual capacity and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is a dose-response relationship between maternal prenatal smoking and criminal psychiatric arrests and hospitalizations for substance abuse in male and female descendants.
Studies in animals showed that the relationship between nicotine and the adverse outcome of development is causal and that prenatal nicotine exposure causes abnormalities of cell proliferation and differentiation leading to deficiencies in the number of cells and altered synaptic activity. Possibly, these adverse functional and structural brain developments also occur in humans. Child cancer Although it has been suggested that there is an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood brain tumors, large case-control studies found no such association between childhood brain tumors and maternal smoking before pregnancy, active smoking or exposure to HAT during pregnancy, passive smoking by the child during the first year of life. For childhood leukemia, the studies are inconsistent. A recent meta-analysis suggests a small increase in the risk of all neoplasms, but not of specific neoplasms such as leukemia and childhood brain tumors.
In conclusion, the possible association between passive smoking and childhood cancer remains a controversial issue with inconsistent results. Neurodevelopment in early childhood plays a key role in the potential to preserve human intelligence and health in the next generation, as stated in a study by the University of Iowa, USA. UU Similarly, a review of Providence, RI, EE.
UU He concluded that the various adverse aspects of long-term intrauterine exposure to active and passive smoking on the child’s neurological development and behavior have become the focus of some research in recent years. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been linked to growth restriction and decreased fetal brain size by numerous studies. It has been shown that the density of important parts of the fetal brain, ie the cerebellum and the corpus callosum, is diminished. These studies have shown a decrease in coordination within different parts of the fetal brain during information processing and a deceleration in the ability to respond adequately to external stimuli and subtly diminished motor competence predominantly on the non-dominant side. Pregnancy works as a motivator to stop smoking and it is a good time to quit smoking as pregnant women are more likely to be in an advanced stage of change. The most serious complications, including lifeless birth, premature birth, and low birth weight, can be attributed to the fact that nicotine and carbon monoxide work together to reduce the amount of oxygen that your baby gets. Nicotine reduces oxygen by narrowing blood vessels in your body, including those in the umbilical cord. It is something like forcing your baby to breathe through a narrow straw.
To make matters worse, red blood cells that carry oxygen begin to pick up carbon dioxide molecules instead of oxygen. Thus, even the narrow straw cannot carry enough oxygen. Small babies tend to have less developed bodies. Your lungs may not be ready to function on their own, which means they can spend their first days or weeks on a respirator. Once they manage to breathe on their own (or even if they can do it from the beginning), these babies have continued respiratory problems due to delayed development of their lungs or other adverse effects of nicotine.
Babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy are especially predisposed to asthma and have a double or even triple risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Smoking during pregnancy can have lifelong effects on your baby’s brain. Babies of pregnant women who smoke are much more likely to have learning disorders, behavioral problems or have especially low mental ratios.