The Keto Diet Principles and Plan for a Patient

The study of a patient’s eating habits combined with a comprehensive analysis of diet, physical activity, and goals is an important focus of practical nutrition therapy. Moreover, it is not enough for the patient to have only a goal to get the necessary results. On the contrary, for the program’s effects to be maximal and rapid, it is necessary to follow a well-designed diet and the recommendations of a qualified professional. This study discusses the example of an adult patient, Maria Karinna, who has been using the principles of the keto diet for five years now.

The study’s basis is a comprehensive and detailed examination of the client’s diet and exercise habits. According to this scenario, Maria Karinna actively practices the low-carbohydrate diet principles but does not exercise at all. In other words, her real goal, to lose an additional 10 pounds, is entirely related to the woman’s diet. It is also worth noting that Maria has already been able to achieve serious results over the past period, namely, to lose an extra 83 pounds. Her main goal is to maintain a normal weight so that her life is healthy and happy.

Ketogenic diet techniques are based on eating foods with reduced carbohydrate content in the diet and a high concentration of natural fats. Due to the lack of a vital chemical energy source, the body independently converts fats into ketones in the liver, which becomes a substitute for the usual synthesis processes (Kubala, 2020). Thus, during the diet, the patient is shown to take in fats and a general reduction in carbohydrates, including sucrose. The ketogenic high-protein diet typical of Maria is aimed at preserving muscle structures while reducing weight overall. Such a diet traditionally contains proteins, fats, and carbohydrates in a 30/65/5 ratio. However, this diet version is mainly aimed at athletes and bodybuilders.

Maria’s daily diet included a high protein content, which the woman received mainly from meat products. At the same time, the patient took in natural fats in olives, fried eggs, fatty salmon, and nuts. On Thursday, Maria went on a 24-hour hunger strike and took only tea. An excess of caloric intake may be noticeable on Tuesday, although the overall diet is fairly similar among all days. On average, Maria takes two full meals during the day and also takes a snack. Simultaneously, it is noticeable that the woman takes little water, and it is mostly carbonated drinks with low sugar content, but with a high concentration of sugar substitutes. Summarizing the patient’s diet for the past week, it would be incorrect to classify it as ketogenic completely because, although protein is present in large quantities, there is almost no fat, and the carbohydrate content is elevated.

Maria claimed that her diet was ketogenic with high protein content, and reports show that she could lose more than 80 pounds. The diet that was presented this past week can hardly be classified as keto because too many systemic rules were broken. First of all, it concerns reducing the consumption of starchy vegetables and foods with high carbohydrate content. Maria was eating wakame seaweed salad three times a week, which contradicts the ketogenic diet basics: total carbohydrates are three times more than proteins and 15 times than fats (“Health benefits,” 2019). Thus, it is an unwarranted product that should be eliminated from the diet. The woman should also increase her water intake throughout the day because a half-liter bottle of carbonated liquid with artificial sweeteners is not enough. Water is an important component of the ketogenic diet because when carbohydrate intake is reduced, the metabolism is restructured with high salt excretion and dehydration (“5 Things,” 2018). Thus, the patient needs to drink as much drinking water as possible without any supplements. Finally, there is a strong bias toward carbohydrate vegetables and virtually no fat content. Perhaps the woman should consider adding small amounts of fatty cottage cheese, avocados, and vegetable oils to her diet. Otherwise, Maria’s diet seems to be sufficient for a caloric deficit and overall weight loss.

In other words, the goal set by the patient is realistic, but the overall weight loss plan requires some tweaking as described above. Particular attention should be paid to the diet’s protein content: although the nutrition is aimed at increasing their concentration in the menu, it may seem that there is too much protein. On the ketogenic diet, protein intake should be limited to 2 g for each kilogram of body, so in the patient’s case, it is necessary to determine her body weight and assess whether she is overeating (Spritzler, 2020). Then, Maria eats meat products every day, which means she consumes quite a lot of protein. This can lead to liver dysfunction, so it is worth recalculating the proportion of macronutrients and possibly giving up some meats.

Finally, intermittent fasting, which was relevant on the fourth day of the diet, is a good catalyst for triggering ketosis. In this state, the body receives no external sources of energy and intensifies fat utilization mechanisms, which helps accelerate weight loss. This is a highly effective method that, however, puts much stress on the body (Kubala, 2018). Therefore, it is appropriate to evaluate two factors that affect the ketogenic fasting diet. First and foremost, Maria should be sure that the tea taken does not contain sugars or sweeteners. Perhaps the woman should consume more water and less tea on this day. On the other hand, 24-hour fasting may be too stressful for an adult woman’s body, so switching to a 16/8 system is an appropriate recommendation.

A modified diet, implemented through increased clean water intake, reduced carbohydrates, and increased natural fats, is a good strategy for Maria. Combined with high-intensity exercise, the patient will be able to achieve positive results in a few months. Nevertheless, if she gives up sports, Maria will still lose weight at a caloric deficit, especially stimulated by intermittent fasting. Thus, it is worth continuing to evaluate the patient’s weekly diet and observe the dynamics. It is expected that by early 2021 the woman will be able to reach her goal.


Health benefits and nutritional value of Wakame Seaweed. (2019). Health Benefits. Web.

Kubala, J. (2018). Intermittent fasting and keto: Should you combine the two? Healthline. Web.

Kubala, J. (2020). All you need to know about high protein, low carb diets. Healthline. Web.

Spritzler, F. (2020). Protein on a low-carb or keto diet. Diet Doctor. Web.

5 things you need to know about water, hydration, and electrolytes on keto. (2018). Paleo Leap. Web.