This is an interview between Miller and Stephen Mosher about the impacts of population growth in a given country. Miller asks a question while Mosher answers the questions asked. In the first question, Miller is asking Mosher the reason why the imminent population have not materialised and where the mistakes could have come from. However, Mosher says that the consequences of overpopulation in some instances from Malthus and Paul Ehrlich’s are deliberately exaggerated in attempt to frighten individuals into having not more than one or two children.
The second question Miller asked was if the projections about limited resources are wrong then what was wrong in a little under-population. Mosher responded by saying that population growth is crucial for economic growth and development in a free market. This is because as the population grow, the demand of goods and services increases hence boosting investment.
The third question Miller asked is how a radical population-control program in the world’s most populous nations considering the effect of the one-child policy which was imposed in communist china. Mosher responded by saying that organization should be put in place which ensures that the government policies are not just adhered to, but are popular and accepted by the people of that country. Therefore, this is one of the ways through which the policy can be implemented in the country.
The fourth question Miller asked was whether the third world countries resisted the funds from the west that was aimed at establishing programs for controlling the population growth. Miller responded that despite many governments resisting it, they later accepted it because they had no choice. For instance, he says that for a third world country to borrow money from USAID, then such a country must distribute contraceptives to the women in order to reduce population growth.
The fifth question Miller asked was how the U. S government got into the business of distributing contraceptives. Miller responded by saying that at the end of the World War II, the U. S engaged militarily around the world. It was during this time that they had the opportunity to distribute contraceptive in some of the countries hence reducing infant mortality rates through providing modern medical care.
The sixth question Miller asked why when population controllers move into a poor country like Kenya then primary health care invariably suffers. Mosher responded by giving an example. For instance, he said that imagining that you are the minister of health in Kenya and that you had a fixed budget to pay certain number of doctors and nurses in public clinic to provide Medicare for the poor. If a country like U. S insisted that it want you to make population control a priority in your Medicare system, then primary health care is likely to suffer because most of the doctors will mostly engage in activities aimed at reducing population growth rates.
The seventh question Miller asked was whether Mosher was aware of any attempt to by the United States bishops to criticize USAID policies at the source. Mosher responded by saying that he was not aware.
The eighth question Miller asked was that encyclical humanae vitae turns 40 this summer. He asked Mosher to in his own opinion explain whether the experience of recent decades corroborate the teachings of Paul VI about the social effects of contraception. Mosher responded by saying; absolutely yes.
The ninth question Miller asked Mosher was to give opinion on whether there was any chance of mobilising human rights groups to demand greater accountability from international organizations which promote population control. Mosher responded by saying that he was hopeful that will come to be.
The tenth question Miller asked was the advice Mosher could give to western legislative who would like to defend population control programs. Mosher responded by saying that there was need for a family friendly foreign policy.
2 NO-2 Pax Americana Geriatrica
This chapter examines the implications of high population growth rate. The chapter also look at some of the initiatives that have been put in place to reduce population growth rate in various countries across the world. For example, Russia offered prizes to couples who agreed to take advantage of the family contact day and wound up producing babies nine months later. However, it is believed that declining birth-rates in Russia will result in aging the society as well as shrinking the country’s population. This will have critical effects on the American international security. Furthermore, reduced birth-rates in the Islamic countries are likely to be of advantage to the American security because it might contribute to reduced threats from terrorism based in Islamic countries.
The cost of growing old
As the number of workers who retires from work increase, the productivity of that particular country also decreases and so does the gross domestic product. Therefore, higher the aging population, the lower the productivity. Income per capita also reduces as productivity reduces. The government spending on the aging population is also very high. However, it is predicted that population aging in the great is likely to prolong U. S power dominance in the 21st century for three primary reasons among them being massive costs that is created with the aging population.
This chapter examines poverty associated with the slum areas. The chapter also gives some of the leading countries with a larger share of slums. For instance, the chapter tells shows that south Asia has the largest share of slums. However, the chapter examines the importance of addressing the situations of slum dwellers in order to reduce the overall poverty and advance human development. The chapter shows that the slum dwellers are more exposed to health risks. The slum dwellers are vulnerable to hazards and therefore development strategies should be put in place in order to address the issue. The chapter also emphasise that women empowerment and well being plays a fundamental role in ensuring sustainable cities.
The job market place
The chapter outlines the importance of creating jobs in order to reduce poverty especially in the rural areas. The chapter reveals that women employment not only increases household income but can also transform her gender roles and elevate women’s status in the family. Therefore, women employment increases their status in the society as well as alleviating poverty.
The long road to property ownership for women
According to the chapter, financial and physical asset offer women more than economic well being and security. It reduces their vulnerability to gender based violence and HIV and AIDS. The status of women has also increased significantly as a result of them participating in decision making activities such as politics.
The population challenge: key to global survival
The chapter outlines the challenges which are brought forward as a result of population growth. For instance, according to the chapter, stabilising the growth of the world’s human population is goals that have to be achieved if we are to preserve our options for the future. The chapter states some of the challenges associated with rapid population growth. They include climate change and global warming, migration and refugee’s crisis and food and water insecurity among others. Therefore, the issue of rapid population growth rate has to be addressed through proper mechanisms such as coming up with various policies.
Global aging and the crisis of 2020
Since the end of colonization, demographic trends have played key role in the youth led revolutions in great political upheavals and other environmental catastrophes. This with time of up to about the year 2020 may cause great peace disruptions of the world. Developing nations however link the year 2020s with massive population aging and decline due to the falling birth rates and long life after birth. The United Nations Population Division cites that the middle ages of between 33-34 ill shift to 47-52 by 2030 with no assumed fertility increase. Japan, Italy and Spain will have more old people in their 70s than those in their 20s. Reduced birth rates have changed the traditional population pyramids as well as causing massive population decline causing contraction of the working age in other counties. Without control of migrations, Japan among other nations might lose more than half a million of the current population. This directly influences the global security more so the GDP whereby a lot of funds will be diverted to cater for defense and pension schemes. Nations like China would face massive population seep weakening the economic status.
A lower population causes a diminishing geopolitical stature of the world nations causing soft power which in other words is defenseless. Even with full employment, the economy would still stagnate. Economic performance is more likely to reduce since work efficiency reduces with advanced ages. The saving rate is more likely to reduce as a greater portion of the population leads to retirement. The old age benefit scheme in some countries is almost pushing beyond affordability making political upheavals over deep cut retirement schemes unavoidable. This will lead the governments to cut the spending on education among other social expenses.
The economic stature of countries may change due to reduced economic productivity. This might lead governments to block foreign competitions due to rising market tariffs among other anticompetitive policies. Extremely youthful societies are violence dominated discouraging economic investments. The United States also witnesses an economic and health bloat including chronically low savings and a political system unable to make proper tradeoffs.
Aging being a worldwide phenomenon, most nations are undergoing demographic transition from high mortality and high fertility to low mortality and low fertility that has accompanied modernization. Most sub-Saharan countries have not gained track thus leaving the country burdened with a greater youth population. Demographic transitions are expected to promote global diversities. This thesis is flawed as it fails to account for the variation in timing and the pace of demographic transition. The transition lacks an historical and realistic sense. The transition however should be able to bring social, cultural and economic changes according to the study by scientists. It might result to religious and cultural revitalizations which may need to reaffirm the cultures. Ethnic tensions also occur during such transitions.
The moment of risk contributed to by demographic storms still lie ahead. An example is china with the child policy, it is however a country growing old before growing rich. It is projected that it would be older than the United States by the year 2030; this might cause turmoil as it is expected to be a perilous moment of transition.
The most cost effective method for reducing rapid population growth rate is through prevention. This is the method which is considered cost effective. Other policies are estimated to cost approximately $3. 9 billion annually and they are also associated with low saving. Some of the advantages which are brought as a result of reduced population growth include: reduced poverty, universal high quality primary education low mortality and high fertility rate among others.
Other negative impacts of high population growth are always experienced by large cities of the world, as a result of high population growth; the cities become environmentally stressed because the resources available are overexploited. For instance, according to UN report, the number of people living in the cities is likely to increase rapidly. This will in turn pose pressure on the available resources within the cities. As a result of the high population, Mega-Cities are likely to suffer from a catalogue of environmentally ills. For instance, improper disposal of waste products.