Sociology (research methods): theory and research

Sociology (Research Methods Theory and Research Question A The concepts falling under variables include; age, sexual orientation, and academic major.
The concepts falling under categories include; gender, occupation, ethnicity, political party for registered voters, and academic student year.
Variable is an object or any entity that can be measured or vary from the initial state. Variables exits in various types such as quantitative variable, categorical variable, and ordinal variable.
Category refers to variables that place individuals or objects literary into groups and are unable to be quantified in a meaningful way.
Gender is a category since it exists into two groups; male, and female.
Age is a variable since it has values in numerical, for example, a researcher can measure the age of a person by getting the date of birth and calculating the age.
Ethnicity is a category since it involves with groups of individual having diverse cultural activities; hence, a region can have different ethnicity groups living together.
Occupation is a category since it involves different kinds of employments that are naturally categorized, for example, employment dealing with medicine, education and engineering.
Sexual orientation is a variable since it exists in both category and variable because it occurs in a pattern of different categories such as emotional, romantic, and sexual
Academic student year is variable because it is measured in sums, for example, the occurrence of the academic major identified by counting the events that have happened in the past years.
Political party for registered voters is a category because the parties registering for the elections and grouped into groups; hence, offering the option of category where individuals are require to chose the political party that is appropriate for them.
Academic major is a category since it involves the discipline in which a student has to choose in order to pursue his/ her course under the undergraduate level.
Question 2
The level of education causes increase in an income based on the condition of causality, because the more an individual is educated, he or she has the opportunity to access many different types of jobs. The employment will make the person shun poverty since he/she will be earning a salary from the jobs. An individual who has several and high levels of education has the highest probability of getting a job in the market than a person who is has low level of education or is not educated at all (Denzin, 30).
Question 3
The independent variable in sentence A is the number of community based dietary and wellness educational programs in lower income neighborhoods.
The dependent variable is the rates of type 2 diabetes
The antecedent variable in question B is the number of healthcare worker employed
The intervening variable is sentence C is the increased number of women who assist in securing promotions in the corporate job market.
The extraneous variable in sentence D is educational and awareness programs about sexual violence decreases
Question 4
Education variables are applied in finding the common level of educational attainment of the populace and precise groups in the community. It examines the liaison amid the levels of edification and employment result, income and further socio-economic variables.
Income variable offers a composite income figure from a number of values for family members or a country related to the respondent (Denzin, 164).
Religion variable can be conceptualized in different ways such as knowing the different types of religions existing such as Christianity and Islam. Further, religion variable can be measured by getting the statistics and number of individuals in the different sections of the religion.
Work Cited
Denzin, Norman K. The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods. New
Brunswick, N. J: AldineTransaction, 2009. Print.