Skills essential at various levels of management

Skills Essential at Various Levels of Management Katz (as cited in Northouse, 2009, p. 40) d that there are skills which are essential in an effective administration namely, technical, human, conceptual, and motivation to manage. These leadership skills are defined as the capacity to utilize competencies and knowledge to attain a set of objectives or goals of the company.
Schermerhorn (2011) defined technical skills as the ability to utilize expertise or proficiency to perform certain task (p. 15). It is considered as essential among lower-level managers as they function to supervise employees who provide services or produce products (Williams, 2010, p. 22). Sales managers have the task of finding potential clients and developing accurate pitches. Technical skills are considered as indispensable to lower-level managers compared to middle-level and upper-level managers. It is essential for lower-level managers to possess technical skills as they have direct access to the employees (Williams, 2010, p. 22). Technical skills involve hands-on activity on the processes or product in the organization. It plays a significant role in producing products and services of the company (Northouse, 2009, p. 40). Middle-level and upper-level managers are mainly concern with foreseeing the overall operations of the company which require a different set of skill.
Human skills pertain to the abilities that aid the managers in effectively working with peers and subordinates to attain the goals of the organization. These skills are essential in the three levels of management. Although low-level managers communicate with high number of employees, human skill is regarded as equally indispensable in lower and upper-level managers (Northouse, 2009, p. 41). These skills are manifested through encouraging employees to express their feelings and thoughts. Managers who possess human skills have high self-awareness and ability to understand the feelings of subordinates. These managers are likely to possess high emotional intelligence.
Conceptual skills refer to the ability to grasp how each part of the company interact and affect one another, and see the company as a whole (Williams, 2010, p. 23). Conceptual skills are considered as unessential for lower-level managers. More and Miller (2010) reiterated that lower-level managers allocate the least amount of time in dealing with concepts and ideas to accomplish objectives of the company (p. 17). They function mainly to execute strategies and policies designed by upper-level managers. Northouse (2009) stresses that conceptual skills are indispensable for upper-level managers. They are relegated with the responsibility of determining where the company is headed, and they devising strategies to ensure the sustainability and profitability of the company in the future. Upper-level managers consider conceptual skills as valuable; however, there is minimal importance put on technical skills for this top level of management (Koontz & Weihrich, 2006, p. 7). An upper-level manager in a particular company manifests conceptual skills as he devised strategies to address threats from new entrants and lack of innovation within the company.
Williams, Champion, and Hall (2011) noted that upper-level managers have high motivation to manage compared to lower-level managers. Motivation to manage pertains to an appraisal of how employees participate in a competitive context, interact with managers, and behave towards others. Those who have higher motivation to manage earned more, were promoted faster, and rated as good managers by employees (p. 16). Motivation to manage is exhibited by the enthusiasm of a manager to lead subordinates.
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Williams, C., Champion, T., & Hall, I. (2011). MGMT. USA: Cengage Learning.