Reading material

READING MATERIAL FUNDAMENTALS OF RURAL SOCIOLOGY AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY COURSE NO: AEXT 291, B. Sc. (Ag.) II YEAR PREPARED BY Dr. S. V. PRASAD ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR AND HEAD DEPARTMENT OF EXTENSION EDUCATION S. V. AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE TIRUPATI-517502 ACHARYA N. G. RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY ACHARYA N. G. RANGA AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY COURSE OUTLINE 1. Course No. 2. Course Title : AEXT 291 : Fundamentals of Rural Sociology and Educational Psychology 3. Credit Hours 4. General Objectives : 2(1+1) : To impart knowledge to the students on sociological and psychological aspects of rural people and to acquaint with some important features of rural society 5. Specific Objectives a) Theory By the end of course, students will be able to i. Understand concept of rural sociology, its importance in agricultural extension, characteristics of Indian rural society ii. Understand social groups, social stratification, culture, social values, social control and attitudes, leadership and training iii. Understand concept of educational psychology, intelligence, personality, perceptions, emotions, frustration, motivation, teaching and learning b) Practical By the end of practical exercises, students will, be able to i. Acquaint with characteristics of rural society, village institutions and social organizations ii. iii. iv. Select lay leaders and train them Assess personality types, leadership types and emotions of human beings Create a training situation under village conditions A) Theory Lecture Outlines 1. Sociology and rural sociology, extension education, agricultural extension – meaning and definitions 2. Importance of rural sociology in agricultural extension and their interrelationship 3. Characteristics of Indian, rural society – differences and relationships between rural and urban societies 4. Social group(s) – classification – formation and organization of groups role of social groups in agricultural extension 5. Social stratification – meaning – forms – class system and caste system 6. Culture and different cultural concepts and. their role in agricultural extension 7. Social values, social control and attitudes types and their role in agricultural extension 8. Leadership – meaning – classification of leaders – roles of a leader and different methods in selection of a leader 9. Training of leaders – lay and professional leaders – advantages and limitations in using local leaders in agricultural extension 2 10. Psychology and educational psychology – meaning – scope and importance 11. Intelligence – meaning – types – factors and importance in agricultural extension 12. Personality – meaning – types – factors and importance in agricultural extension 13. Perception, emotions and frustration – meaning – types – factors and importance in agricultural extension , 14. Motivation – meaning – types of motives – theories of motivation importance of motivation in agricultural extension 15. Teaching, learning, learning experience and learning situation – meaning and definition -elements of learning situation and its characteristics 16. Principles of : learning and their implications in teaching – steps in extension teaching, B) Practical Class Outlines 1. Visit to a village to study the characteristics of rural society 2. Visit to village institutions – school or cooperative society or gram Panchayat 3. Visit to social organizations – youth club or milk cooperative centre or Water Users Association 4. Visit to a village to conduct the selection of a lay leader based on sociogram technique 5. Visit to a village to identify different social groups to which the farmers are associated 6. Visit to a village to list out the taboos, folkways, rituals and social values in the village 7. Administering psychological tests by students to assess level of intelligence of human beings 8. Administering psychological tests by students to assess the personality types of human beings 9. Conducting role play technique by the students to exhibit different leadership styles 10. Simulated exercises to exercise positive and negative emotions of farmers in village 11. Simulated exercises to reveal the positive and negative emotions of the students in real life situation 12. Simulated exercises on identification of positive and negative emotions and emotionally balanced behaviour 13. Nature of learners behaviour in motivation 14. Creating a learning situation under village conditions for a specific teaching activity 15. Training need assessment of farmers of a village 16. Visit to a village for conducting a training programme 3 References Adivi Reddy, A. 2001. Extension Education. Sri Lakshmi Press, Bapatla. Chitamber, J. B. 1997. Introductory Rural Sociology. Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi. Daivadeenam, P. 2002. Educational Psychology in Agriculture. Agrotech Publishing Academy, Udaipur. Mangal, S. K. 2000. Educational Psychology. Prakash Brothers, Ludhiana. Ray, G. L. 2006. Extension Communication and Management. Naya Prakashan, Kolkata. Vidyabhushan and Sach Dev, D. R. 1998. An Introduction to Sociology. Kitab Mahal Agencies, Allahabad. 4 CONTENTS S. No. LESSON PAGE NO. 1. Sociology and rural sociology, extension education, agricultural extension – Meaning and definitions 2. Importance of rural sociology in agricultural extension and their interrelationship 3. Characteristics of Indian rural society, differences and relationships between rural and urban societies 4. Social group/s – Classification, formation and organization of groups, role of social groups in agricultural extension 5. 6. Social stratification – Meaning, forms, class system and caste system Culture, different cultural concepts and their role in agricultural extension 7. Social values, social control and attitudes – Types and their role in agricultural extension 8. Leadership – Meaning, classification of leaders, roles of a leader and different methods in selection of a leader 9. Training of leaders — Lay and professional leaders, advantages and limitations in using local leaders in agricultural extension 10. Psychology and educational psychology – Meaning, scope and importance 11. Intelligence – Meaning, types, factors and importance in agricultural extension 12. Personality – Meaning, types, factors and importance in agricultural extension 13. Perception, emotions, frustration – Meaning, types, factors and importance in agricultural extension 14. Motivation – Meaning, types of motives, theories of motivation, importance of motivation in agricultural extension 15. Teaching, learning, learning experience, learning situation – Meaning and definition, elements of learning situation and its characteristics 16. Principles of learning and their implications in teaching. Steps in extension teaching 51 49 47 42 40 37 35 32 26 22 16 18 13 9 8 6 5 COURSE NO: AEXT 291 TITLE: FUNDAMENTALS OF RURAL SOCIOLOGY AND EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY THEORY NOTES LECTURE NO.: 1. SOCIOLOGY AND RURAL SOCIOLOGY, EXTENSION EDUCATION, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION – MEANING AND DEFINITIONS Sociology — Introduction: The term sociology was coined by Auguste Comte (1789-1875) who is often referred as the father of sociology who named it from two words, of which one is Latin word ‘ socius’ meaning companion and the other is Greek word ‘ logos’ meaning speech or reasoning. SOCIOLOGY SOCIUS (Latin) (Companion) LOGOS (Greek) (Speech or reasoning) The etymological (based on the origin of the word) meaning of sociology is thus ‘ the science of society’. Sociology has been referred to as systematized knowledge in the study of human social relationships. The content or subject matter of sociology is not literary writing as is assured (thought) by many people. It is a detailed and systematic study of society. There are animal societies also but sociology studies only human societies. Human beings have progressed to a large extent and therefore, sociology is used for the systematic study of the human being in group relations. Sociology is concerned with people and without people or human beings there cannot be sociology, it cannot be in isolation as its main emphasis is on their relationship with other persons. They stay in groups and therefore the sociologists study people organized in families, friendship groups, temples, schools, industrial plants and in other organizations. The fundamental process in any society is interaction or social interaction. In short sociology studies the social behavior of people, their different social groups and the intra and interrelationship of these social groups. Sociology is the web or tissue of human interaction and interrelationship — Ginsburg Definitions and scope of Rural Sociology or what is rural sociology: Rural sociology is a branch of sociology. It is made up of two terms rural and sociology that is science of rural society. It is the study of the sociology of life in the rural environment, which systematically studies the rural communities to discover their conditions and tendencies and formulate the principles of progress as the term implies. It is limited to the study of various aspects of rural society. 6 Definition: According to Smith rural sociology is the body of facts and principles of the systematized knowledge, which has developed the application of scientific method in the study of human relationships in rural environment and people, engaged directly or indirectly in agriculture occupation. An extension worker is a change agent. Transfer or communication of innovations is the main job of these changes agents. But for introducing improved farm practices, an understanding of the farmer, his social and cultural environment within which he operates, his home, his village and the local region is necessary. Rural sociology provides such knowledge and makes possible the planning of a strategic approach for the desired changes. It allows constant analysis of the rural situation and within reasonable limits prediction of possible results. From this point of view the main emphasis in the community development programs is on changing human behavior and working with rural people by using educational methods. For doing this, as stated earlier the change agent, must have adequate knowledge and skill in methods of communication. In addition to this the change agent must know what is going on, in the minds of rural people, their relationships and interactions, their groups, their institutions, their organizations and the culture they share. All these factors influence the farmers’ behavior. The knowledge regarding these factors is provided by rural sociology. In the absence of this knowledge of rural society the change agent will not be able to plan a proper strategy of change. The change agent at the first instance has to understand their programmes and their objectives. Secondly he must know the currents of thoughts in the minds of the people with whom he works. He needs to understand their motives, their reactions and their receptivity to new ideas. He should also understand why some people are more receptive than others, why some people take the initiative and lead and why others hesitate Scope of Rural Sociology: Rural sociology works in three areas a. Accumulation and use of sociological knowledge and use it for solving the present problems of rural society (subject matter of rural sociology) b. Direct its efforts in obtaining sociological knowledge by empirical research procedures (research in rural sociology) c. Channel its efforts by keeping faith in the methods used in this discipline in solving the problems of rural society (solving the problems of rural society) Rural Sociology — its importance to extension work: 1. In the context of community development and rural development programs deliberate efforts are made to bring about social change in rural areas. This change is brought about not in a vacuum but in a structure of human relations, which necessitates the study of rural sociology 7 2. An extension worker is a change agent. He has to bring about changes in the rural culture. Therefore, he has to understand the culture in which he has to bring about changes 3. In the cross-cultural situation, it is likely that the change agent may develop the ethnocentric attitude, which makes him difficult to work successfully. Study of rural sociology helps to overcome this difficulty. 4. Some times. The change agent, while working in rural communities, does not keep the established pattern of hierarchy, this creates problems in his working. Rural sociology helps him to understand the same and its importance 5. The value system of individuals, families, groups and communities is an important factor to be kept in mind while trying to bring about changes in the farming communities Therefore, it is necessary for a student of rural development to study the subject of rural sociology to bring about planned change in the rural communities effectively and without resistance LECTURE NO.: 2. IMPORTANCE OF RURAL SOCIOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIP Extension education (Agricultural Extension) in the field of agriculture is concerned with agricultural education aimed at assisting people to bring about continuous improvement in their physical and social well being through individual and cooperative efforts. It makes available to the villagers, scientific information and also guidance in the application of such information in solving their problems. Villagers are educated to change their attitudes so as to raise their standard of living Meaning of Extension Education: The word Extension is derived from the Latin roots ‘ Ex’ meaning ‘ out’ and ‘ tensio’ meaning ‘ stretching’. Thus the term extension education means the type of education, which is stretched out into the villages and fields beyond the limits of schools and colleges to which formal type of education is normally confined. In other words the word ‘ extension’ used in this context signifies an OUT OF SCHOOL system of education. The three links in the chain of rural development are research, teaching and extension EXTENSION (Latin word) ‘ EX’ (Out) ‘ TENSIO’ (Stretching) Definition: Extension education is the process of teaching rural people how to live better by learning ways that improve their farm, home and community institutions 8 INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RURAL SOCIOLOGY AND EXTENSION S. No. Rural Sociology It is a scientific study of the laws of the structure and development of rural society It is Extension informal (actually non-formal) 1. education for the rural people with a view to develop rural society on desirable lines It seeks to modify or change for the better, the attitudes and behavior of village people It helps rural people to discover their needs and problems and builds educational programs based on these needs and wants 2. It studies the attitudes and behavior of rural people 3. It studies the needs and interests of rural society 4. It analyses rural or social group It fosters (develops) and utilizes village organizations and leadership and favorable social processes, to achieve its objectives of rural development relationships, organizations and leadership in rural areas, the social processes like cooperation, association, competition etc, among village people 5. It studies social situations and assembles society 6. It investigates the social, cultural, political, and religious problems of rural society social facts or rural It makes use of such social data as a basis for building up its extension programs for rural areas It also studies these problems with reference to their impact on extension work in villages LECTURE NO.: 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN RURAL SOCIETY, DIFFERENCES AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN SOCIETIES Need for the Study of the Rural Society: 1. The study of rural society is essential for carrying out a programme of rural extension 2. It is important to know some of the characteristics of rural society as people have distinguishing features 3. A knowledge of fundamental characteristics of rural situation should contribute much to the understanding of the structure of rural society, the way it functions 4. Rural people are studied in terms of their personal and group relations and as members of groups, organizations and institutions 5. Rural society comprises of all persons residing in administrative unit of village as defined by the authorities 9 Definition of Society: Society is defined as a group of people in more or less permanent association who are organized for their collective activities and who feel that they belong together Characteristics of Indian Rural Society: 1. Agriculture is main economic activity of rural people. It is based predominantly on Agriculture. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood. The land is distributed between certain families. The distribution of land is between a big land owner and rest of the community, possession of which (land) has prestige value 2. Caste is dominant institution of village. It is peculiar type of grouping found in rural India. The village is governed to a very great extent by traditional caste occupations, carpenters, cobblers, smiths, washer men, agricultural laborers etc all belonging to separate castes, caste relations are important characteristics of rural life 3. The religious and caste composition of village largely determines its character. Different castes exist in village due to social distance. The habitation of each caste is separated from others. The habitation area has usually a distinct name e. g. Harijanawada 4. Each village is independent. All villages have their own organizations, authority and sanctions. Every village has Panchayat which is village self government 5. Village settlements are governed by certain traditions. The layout of the village, construction of houses, the dress etc is allowed according to the prescribed patterns of the culture of the area. In different areas a certain degree of diversity (differences between villages in the above aspects of the village life) in village organizations is peculiar 6. The rural society is self-sufficient. The unit of production in rural society is the family, which tries to produce much of its required goods. Economic production is the basic activity of rural aggregates (rural groups) 7. As a territorial, social, economic and religious unit, the village is a separate and distinct entity 8. It is common to find out a sense of attachment towards own settlement site. In rural society people do not have widely diversified tasks in different parts of the community 9. Village is characterized by isolation 10. The chief characteristic of rural life is homogeneity, there are not many differences among people pertaining to income, status etc. 11. The other characteristics are less density of population, less social mobility, less education, simplicity, traditionalism, fatalism, believing superstitions etc DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES Rural people are different from those living in urban areas. These differences are mainly due to the environment and its consequent impact on the lives of the people 10 S. No. Item of comparison Rural community associated Urban community with Remote from nature. 1. General environment Closely and nature orientation to nature. Direct effect of natural Predominance of manelements like rains, drought, made environment heat, etc, on their lives 2. Occupation Major occupation is farming. Most of the jobs are nonNon-agricultural occupations agricultural and specialized are secondary in importance 3. Working conditions Being agriculture work in Work in closed Greater open air environment. isolation from nature. Poor fresh air 4. Family Works as a unit. More unity or Work in different integrity and more contacts occupations and contact is between members 5. Size of the community less between members ‘ Agriculturalism’ and size of Large. Less land per person community are negatively correlated. Community is small in size. Land to man ratio is higher 6. 7. 8. Density of population Material possession Homogeneity and heterogeneity Low density of population Less More homogeneous. Similarity in social and psychological characteristics in the population. Such as beliefs, language etc, 9. Social institutions Most of the institutions are a Numerous enacted natural outgrowth of rural institutions High density of population Different types and more More heterogeneous. Wide variety of interests, occupations, languages etc. social life. Less of enacted (approved institutions 10. Social stratification and differentiation Less among groups and low Different types of groups degree of differentiation. Gap like between higher and professional, or created) lower occupational etc, and high degree of differentiation. classes is less Gap between the higher and lower classes is more 11 11. Hierarchy Less in number e. g. lower, More in number e. g. uppermiddle and upper classes upper, upper-middle, upperlower, middle upper and so on 12. Social contacts and Less type number, social Large number, is contacts social wider. are interaction is narrow. Primary interaction contacts predominant. relatively are Personal more Secondary and predominant. and Impersonal, short-lived durable relations. casual Man is interacted as a human relations. Man is interacted as number and address 13. Social mobility Occupational mobility is and less territorial Occupational and territorial intensive. mobility is found Urbanity more and Normally the migration current intensive. carries more individuals from social mobility are positively countryside to the cities correlated. period of Only social in the crises migration is from cities to countryside 14. Social control Informal control i. e. more Formal control i. e. legally related to the values and traditions of the society 15. Social change Rural life is relatively static and Urban social life is under stable 16. Social (unity) constant social change solidarity Strong sense of belonging and Comparatively less sense unity due to common of belonging and unity due and to dissimilarities kinds and of objectives, similarities personal relationships impersonal relationships 17. 18. 19. 20. Standard of living Educational facilities Economy Communication Low standard of living, Less Subsistence High standard of living More Cash transport facilities, roads, Less transport facilities, bad Many roads etc better communication etc 21. Society A simple, uni-group society A complex, multi-group society 22. Culture Sacred Secular equal) (all religions are 12 LECTURE NO.: 4. SOCIAL GROUP/S – CLASSIFICATION, FORMATION AND ORGANIZATION OF GROUPS, ROLE OF SOCIAL GROUPS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION Social structure is composed of groups. Organizations, institutions, community etc, are the forms of human associations. Society functions through different forms of human beings to fulfill needs and purposes. Man functions in society through different forms of groups. Man is born is a social group and his first association is with his mother. He associates with groups in some way or other. Individual nowhere lives in isolation. This tendency to unite in groups is one of the important characteristics of human beings. Social groups are the units out of which society is constructed. Study of group is of primary important in the study of society and also important as a part of the total structure of society. Group is a medium through which we learn culture. The process of socialization takes place in groups Definitions of Group: According to Chitambar a social group is a unit of two or more people in reciprocal (to and fro) interaction and in communication with each other Maclever defined social group as a collection of human beings who enter into distinctive social relationships with one another According to Sharif and Sharif, a social group is a collection of two or more individuals in which there are psychological interactions and reciprocal roles based upon durable contacts, shared norms, interests, distinctive pattern of collective behavior and structural organization of leadership and followership Elements of Social Group: 1. Social unit 2. Psychological interactions and reciprocal roles 3. Durable contacts 4. Distinctive pattern of collective behavior 5. Sharing of norms and interests 6. Pattern of leadership and follower ship Types or classification of Social Groups: Type of group/s Primary and Secondary groups Formal and Informal groups Voluntary and involuntary groups Horizontal and vertical groups In and out groups Locality groups Small and large groups Reference group Based on The type of relationship Mode of organization and functioning Structure and type of membership Social class Personal feelings Territory or locality Size 13 Based on the type of relationship groups are dived in to primary and secondary groups: the details are as follows as given by Rogers 1960: Primary groups are relationship directed whereas secondary groups are goal oriented Primary Group Small in size, often less than 20 to 30 Large in size persons Personal and intimate relationships among Impersonal and aloof(distant) relationships members are there among members Secondary Group Face to face association is there between Less face to face contact the members Permanency is there and members are Temporary together over a long period of time in nature. Members spend relatively little time together are not well acquainted and Members are well acquainted and have a Members strong sense of loyalty or ‘ we’ feeling and anonymity prevails a strong amount of group pressure is present Informality is most common i. e. group does Formality prevails i. e. group often has a not have any name, officers etc name, officers and a regular meeting place Group decisions are more traditional and Group decisions are more rational and the non rational emphasis is on efficiency E. g. family, friendship group, play group E. g. political groups, labour unions, trade etc unions, employees associations etc Based on mode of organization and functioning groups are divided in to formal and informal groups: Formal Group Informal Group These are formally organized and have These are not formally organized and lack prescribed structure i. e. constitution by-laws prescribed structure etc E. g. Labour union, village council, students E. g. family, friendship group, play group union etc etc Based on structure and type of membership groups are divided in to voluntary, involuntary and delegate groups: Voluntary Group Involuntary Group A person becomes member of the group Persons become members of the group based on his choice not according to their choice i. e. by birth, by residence, by location etc E. g. friendship group, play group etc E. g. family, neighbourhood, community etc. 14 Delegate group: The members of this group are representative and chosen by groups. E. g. Gram Panchayat, U. N. O., etc. Based on social class groups are divided in the horizontal and vertical groups: Horizontal Group The members of this group are alike or similar The groups Vertical Group that are composed of in status or position in the class system of the members from different social strata (social society status) and whose membership cuts vertically across the horizontal groupings in the society E. g. caste E. g. race, nation etc Based on personal feelings the groups have been divided in and out groups: In Group Out Group Persons in this group feel that they belong to Persons in this group do not feel that they that group based on their attitudes of the belong to that group based on their members towards their own social groups E. g. my family, my class, my church etc. attitudes E. g. their family, their class, their church etc. Based on the size of the groups the groups are divided in to small and large groups: Small Group The number of members is less than 30 E. g. family, play group etc. Locality Group: This classification considers locality as one bond for holding groups together or it is based on the territory or locality occupied by the members. E. g. neighbourhoods, communities or villages towns etc Reference Group: In this group the individual feels identified with the group but he may or may not be the member of the group, the group influences individual. He shares the objectives of this group, which he accepts. The reference group provides the standards that guide behavior even when the standards are contrary to earlier membership groups. To understand the behavior of human beings we must know their reference groups. A reference group may be any group for E. g. Primary group, horizontal group etc. Reference group like friendship group may influence a farmer to accept or reject the adoption of an improved farming practice. Reference group is the group which the individual refers for advises on different aspects. An individual may have different reference groups for different purposes. In rural society the individual belongs to a comparatively small number of groups (largely primary) and his behavior is largely determined by them Large Group The number of members is more E. g. political group, labour union etc. 15 LECTURE NO.: 5. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION – MEANING, FORMS, CLASS SYSTEM AND CASTE SYSTEM Definitions: Social stratification is the division of population into two or more layers, each of which is relatively homogeneous and between which there are differences in privileges (opportunities), restrictions, rewards and obligations — Lundberg 1968. A pattern of superimposed categories of differential privilege is termed as social stratification — Cuber 1954. The moment of individuals or groups from one stratum of society to another is known as social mobility. Caste system and class system are two of the major types or forms of social stratification. Communities are socially stratified in various ways. Sex division is a major sociological difference, age groups and so on. Society is divided into layers, some of which occupy a higher position than others. These layers are generally accepted as social classes. So the principal type of social stratification is seen in the phenomenon of ‘ class’. The term CLASS means a number of individuals in the same society whose status is similar. Social status refers to positions of individual or group in relation to other. As a sociological concept, social status is the difference between higher and lower. According to Maciver a social class is any portion of a community marked off from the rest of social status. A social class has been defined as an abstract category of persons arranged on levels according to social status they posses. There are no firm lines dividing one category from another – Rogers 1960 The social class involves three features: a. Hierarchy of status (always graded order) b. Recognition of superiority and inferiority and c. Change and mobility is present Determinants of social class: In some societies occupation and income in other education and ownership of material possessions in some other family background may be important criteria. The basis of criteria among the farmers is the land ownership Caste: The term ‘ Caste’ was derived from the Portuguese word ‘ casta’ meaning lineage or race. Definitions: A caste is a social category whose members are assigned a permanent status within a given social hierarchy and whose contacts are restricted accordingly — Lundberg. Caste is a closed class. As compared to class, the caste is the most rigid, clearly graded type of social stratification. This has been often referred to as one of the extreme forms of closed class systems 16 Characteristics of rigid caste system: 1. The caste system is determined slowly by birth and there is no vertical social mobility 2. In other words, caste is a closed class system with clearly demarcated status and role of its members. One is borne into a caste, lives and dies in it 3. When a class is somewhat strictly heredity we may called it as caste — Cooley 4. An individual is borne into a caste of his parents and can rise no further. Status is determined by birth. Type of caste consciousness acts as a barrier to social progress 5. India is cited as the most perfect instance of closed but not open system which is extremely differentiated Determinants of caste: a. The family in to which the individual takes birth and its name b. The way of dressing c. The privileges, rewards and restrictions d. The way of performing religious rights etc Character Value definition of inferiority and superiority Relevancy in norm role definitions Self definitions Labels and awareness may be vague Change and expectation Material objects Provided for and expected Possession of valued objects increases as class position increases Justification of system (value definition) Status Pragmatic ‘ this worldly’ justification Achieved Ascribed Neither provided nor expected Possession of valued objects increases as caste position increases Strong religious endorsement Rigid labels and awareness Less than in caste systems More than in class systems Class pattern Applied to any characteristic Caste pattern Usually applied to biological Social interaction: It is dynamic interplay of forces in which contacts between persons and groups results in a modification of the attitudes and behavior of the participants — Sutherland 1961 Social processes: Social interaction, which assumes a repetitive pattern in a specific direction, becomes a social process. Social processes refer to repetitive forms of behavior which are commonly found in social life. E. g. Cooperation, competition, accommodation and assimilation 17 LECTURE NO.: 6. CULTURE, DIFFERENT CULTURAL CONCEPTS AND THEIR ROLE IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION Culture: meaning, definitions and different orders of culture: The extension education brings about the changes in the behavior complex of the rural people. The behavior is in turn influenced by the cultural factors, extension workers, therefore should have knowledge of the culture of the rural people. Learned behavior, which has been organized into patterns and is shared and transmitted among the members of society, is known as culture. Sociologists have developed the concept of culture in order to explain the regularity in human actions. The sociological meaning of the term culture differs sharply from the literary (bookish) use. In conventional (usual) usage, the word culture is employed to designate only the behavior systems that are regarded as refinements such as paintings, music, art etc. But culture also includes all the activities that are characteristics of a given group of people In social science, culture refers to totality of what is learned by individuals as members of the society. Culture is a way of life, mode of thinking, acting and feeling. Culture refers to the distinct way of life of a group of people, a complete design of living. According to Tylor culture is the complex whole, which includes knowledge, belief, art, moral, law, customs and any other capability and habits acquired by them as members of society. Culture includes not only the way of making things and doing things, but the pattern of the relationships and attitudes, beliefs and ideas they have and even the feelings with which people respond. In other words culture includes everything the man learns or acquires as member of a particular society. All the members of group share culture. All human societies have culture but the contents differ, and all cultures have customs, language, major institutions, and some type of technology, which is shared by the members of the society According to Ralph Linton culture may be the thought in terms of three different orders: Two overt (which can be seen) orders of culture are: 1. Material products of industry, implements, tools etc 2. Overt behavioral patterns like customs, folkways etc One covert (which cannot be seen or hidden) order of culture is: 3. Psychological like attitudes, values etc. held by the individuals or groups The study of culture helps to understand the behavior of people in different parts of the world. The desired change cannot be successfully brought about without clear comprehension of the concept of culture. Extension worker should have knowledge of elements of culture that are important in relation to his work 18 Role of culture in Extension: 1. Culture is dynamic and continuously changes because of internal as well as external forces of stimuli. Community development aims at bringing about the changes in the culture of rural people towards desired goals. Scientific understanding of the culture is therefore basic E. g. Improved pig raring in Muslim village is not possible 2. It is possible to record greater success when the improved practices introduced are in familiar terms i. e. something that is already present in the culture E. g. Improved plough with iron ploughshare 3. Change is more likely to occur in those aspects of culture where there is lack of adjustment or stress, then in those aspects, which are established and fixed. E. g. Introduction of improved practices in areas which are rehabilitated on account of floods or fire 4. Change in technology is usually more readily accounted than change in other aspects of culture E. g. Introducing of improved seed of a crop Ethnocentrism: Ethnocentrism refers to the preferential feeling we have for the way we do things in our culture. We presume that ours is the best of all cultures and the way we do things is the right way to do them. This is common characteristic we find among the people of all cultures. This influences the extension activities some times, which we have to understand and safeguard Customs: The sociologists have used various terms in order to classify various human acts of behavior. If these various types of human behavior are organized, they are called customs. Maclever defined customs as socially accorded (agreed) or accredited (given) ways of acting Customs are the accepted ways in which people do things together. Customs are socially prescribed forms of behavior transmitted by tradition and enforced by social disapproval of its violation (not doing). Customs may also be defined as a habitual form of meeting people. Training the young, supporting the aged etc are some of the customs of society. Our acting, our dressing, our worship are controlled to a great extent by customs. We agree most of the customs of the group to which we belong. Custom is usage (habit) it’s essential feature is that it is a generally observed code of conduct. Its’ sanction (punishment) is fear of public opinion. Human behavior is not individualized. It has some definite forms. It occurs in regular fashion. Customs are thought of as being well-established and difficult to change. Customs are generally a group action. Unconsciously we conform to the customs of our own society. Folkway if transmitted by tradition and followed generation after generation may become custom 19 The classification of customs and their origin are as follows: Folkways: – – – – Folkways are expected forms of behavior but are not rigidly enforced Folkways are the customary ways of behaving in society, in which society exerts some force for conformity Folkways are recognized ways of behavior in a society The Folkways are socially acceptable ways of behavior. The customary norms of society that do not imply moral sanction (punishment). Folkways are otherwise called as Usages sometimes – The folkways are the right ways to do things because they are the expected ways. They do not have more sanctions associated with them. People who do not conform may be subject to criticism but would not be penalized Examples of folkways are: – – – – – Good manners Entering home only after removal of shoes Lady touching the feet of her mother-in-law Rajput wearing a turban Greeting others with folded hands Thus folkways are accepted as appropriate but not insisted upon. Society cannot exercise pressure upon people to conform to regular pattern of behavior. Folkways help individuals in a group to order social life in a smooth and harmonious way. People who have similar needs began to satisfy these needs in a similar way in the same environment such actions give rise to folkways. Folkways usually arise without prior intention in the process of living. They are the results of frequent repetition of petty (little) actions often, by large number of people acting in the same way when faced with some needs. They arise from experience. Non-observance of folkways is not a vital matter, social sanction is relatively mild, but the disapproval is shown by lifted eyebrow expression of moderate surprise or smile Mores: Mores are the plural of Latin word ‘ More’. The mores are the customs or patterns of behavior, which are regarded by members of social system as vital and essential to the welfare of the group. They show what is right for the welfare of group. Mores may be defined as those customs, which are held to be essential to ethical or moral values of people. Mores are the socially acceptable ways of behavior that do involve moral standards (regulations) and violation of more may result in severe social action or sanction, such as ostracism (exclusion of individual or family from the village or society). Religion provides foundation for mores of the society 20 Examples of Mores: – – – – – – Inter-dining of high-cast Hindus with out-caste Hindus Honesty is one of the recognized mores of the society Saluting the National Flag Standing during the playing of National Anthem Monogamy (having one wife or husband) Women and children first in the event of crises The term more is used for those things that are ought to be done. It is used for positive actions. Mores are insisted upon individuals. Society exerts pressure to conform the regular pattern and it not followed individual gets penalty from society. Mores are rigidly enforced Taboos: Generally the term ‘ more’ is used for the positive action or things that ought to be done but the term ‘ taboo’ is used for the negative action and for the things that one ought not to do. Taboo means forbid. It refers to the prohibitions of the types of behavior because of some magical, supernatural (God) or religious sanction Examples of taboo: Total abstinence (self denial) of eating beef in a Hindu village (eating beef in Hindu religion) and eating pork in Muslim religion Rituals: Ritual is prescribed form of behavior for certain occasions and certain actions are designated in prescribed manner. Ritual may be defined as a pattern of behavior or ceremony, which has become the customary way of dealing with certain situations. Generally it is discussed as an aspect of religion. Religion is found in all established form of activities. It may include prayers. Military organization and other formally organized groups have adhered to a prescribed form of behavior known as ritualism Examples of rituals: – – – Playing with crackers on ‘ Diwali’ Celebration of Independence Day Celebration of Republic day Conventions: These are customs regulating more significant social behavior. Parents generally do not care to leave such learning to chance. Parents instruct their children the conventions though often they (parents) cannot explain why the child must confirm 21 Examples of Conventions: – – – – Being polite to others Wearing clothes in public Dating or courtship (found in western countries) and engagement practices Using knife, spoon or fork for eating etc. Differences between mores and taboos: Mores Mores refer to positive action Taboos Taboos refer to negative action Mores are the customs regarded by the They are the customs which are forbidden members of the society as vital or essential Things ought to be done E. g. Monogamy, honesty etc. Differences between mores and folkways: Mores These are socially acceptable ways of These are Folkways the customary ways of Things ought not to be done E. g. eating of beef in Hindu religion etc. behavior that involve moral standards behaving in society These are rigidly enforced and if not followed Persons who do not conform may be by a person the individual gets severe penalty subjected to criticism or be considered form the society ‘ strange’ penalized Patterns of behavior which are considered Expected form of behavior but not rigidly essential by the society enforced but would not necessarily If violated the group or society may be If violated will not have severe effect on disturbed or divided E. g. Monogamy, honesty etc. society E. g. Good manners, greeting others etc. Lecture No.: 7. Social values, Social control and attitudes – types and their role in agricultural extension Definitions: Values are relative importance or preferences we give to any object, idea or content of experience etc. Value is defined as anything desired or chosen by someone. Social values are relatively enduring (lasting or permanent) awareness plus emotion regarding an object, idea or person — Green 1964. Social values are abstract and often unconscious assumptions of what is right and important Young — 1959. 22 Attitude: Definitions Attitude is a positive or negative feeling one has towards any psychological object. Attitudes are based up on values and attitudes influence our action positively or negatively. Hence they are covert and not overt Value system: The values in terms of attitudes taken together as a set form a system, which is called value system of society. E. g. prestige based on caste of individual, status based up on individual’s possession of land etc Role of value system in Extension: Society places different values on various items which form a part of village life e. g. villagers spend money on daughter’s marriage, building a house etc. Extension worker should understand the value system in a village and implement his programs in such a way that the programs are not going to interfere with the value system. Extension worker should think of changing the same (values) before introducing his programs Values and Norms Norms are closely associated with values but are clearly differentiated from them (values). Values are the attitudes, held by the individuals, groups or society as a whole, as to whether material or non-material objects are good, bad, desirable or undesirable. The rules that govern action directed towards achieving values are called norms. Norms are the accepted and approved forms of behavior that are based on and consistent with dominant social values in society. The values and norms go together Opinion Attitude Norm/Social value A set of social values will always have an accompanying set of social norms or rules that uphold and support values E. g. of value: Religious worship and respect to god usually is considered value E. g. of value system: Religion Examples of norms: Observance of religious festivals and performance of rituals and worship and other relevant activities are important norms of society towards the value system of religion Major values prevailing in rural society or Social values in Indian rural society: 1. Importance of ascribed (given by somebody) status: Status of individual is decided by the group to which he belongs. There is an established order of hierarchy of castes in the Indian society 2. Recognition of inequality: Caste is still a guiding factor. There are inequalities based on the concept of higher and lower castes which are manifested (brought out) in many ways 23 3. Patriarchal tendency: Father is the head of family. Eldest male member of family has supreme power and tends to act autocratically 4. Status of women: There is a tendency towards giving greater respect and recognition to women, but they are supposed to be inferior to men. As far as their sphere of work is concerned it is mostly restricted to home management 5. Greater male dominance: Boys receive greater attention than girls. E. g. it is general attitude of parents that daughter(s) need not be highly educated 6. Adherence to well regulated sex relations 7. Charity: There is religious significance and approval for the giving of alms (something or money or food item given freely to poor). A person with a charitable disposition is respected 8. Tendency of non-violence: Killing of animals expect for the purpose of food is considered to be immoral 9. Respect for old aged and elders: There are fixed norms which guide the behavior of individuals towards elders, superiors and old persons 10. Religious attitude: People in rural areas are religious. Performance of rituals and ceremonies are common in the traditional way Types of Values: 1. Ultimate values: Ultimate values are often referred as dominant values. These values express the general views of society towards matters such as the nature of the universe and man relation to it and to his fellowmen. These values are found most easily in social institutions such as religion, government or the family. E. g. The democratic proceedings expressed in the system of government (democracy). Ultimate values are abstract (not specific) and often not attainable 2. Intermediate values: These values are derived from ultimate values and are actually ultimate values that have been rephrased into more reasonable attainable categories. E. g. Freedom of speech, adult franchise (choice, religious freedom, free public education, non-discrimination, adequate housing etc.) 3. Specific values: The subdivisions of intermediate values are called specific values and are almost unlimited in number. Specific values must be in conformity with the total value system of which they form the smallest unit. E. g. To a farmer with intermediate value of adequate housing the related specific values can be a brick construction with a flat slab roof, wide verandah and large court and with provision to livestock housing. If public education is the intermediate value specific values can be the type of school, room and other facilities and content of courses or instructions etc. Social control: Definitions: Social control is the way in which social order coheres (joins together) and maintains itself, how it operates as a whole as a changing equilibrium (balance) — Maclever 24 Social control is the sum of those methods by which a society tries to influence human behaviour to maintain a given order — Mannheim Meaning of social control: Social control is an influence exerted by the public or society for promoting the welfare of the group as a whole Means or types of social control Social control is classified in to two categories formal and informal Informal means of social control 1. 2. Belief: Belief in religion controls the behaviour to a great extent Social suggestions: we suggest the younger generations many ideas like giving the examples of great men, celebration of anniversaries of great people etc 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Ideologies: The communication of ideologies like Ghandhiism, capitalism, communism etc by which the social behaviour of the individuals is controlled Customs Folkways Mores Religion Art and literature: A purposeful classical dance as art and religious epics like bible, Ramayana etc 9. Humour and Satire: Cartoons, comics etc as a part of humour and satires as indirect criticism of actions harmful to help in maintaining the social values 10. Public opinion: In villages people know each other even otherwise the fear of public criticism and the need of recognition by individuals makes to control his behaviour Formal means of social control 1. Law: Law is a body of rules given by legally authorized bodies and enforced by authorized agencies like police, judiciary etc 2. 3. Education: Education prepares the child for social living by removing his wrong attitudes and learning discipline, honesty and what is right or wrong Coercion (force): Physical coercion like imprisonment or death penalty (through law) and non violent coercion like strike boycott or non cooperation (between individuals and groups) are means of social control Role of social control in society or Need of social control: 1. To maintain the old order: The old members of the family enforce their ideas on the children Marriages are settled by the elder members of the family and they influence the behaviour of other members of the family 2. To establish the social unity: Without social control the social unity is a dream. The families and society are united because social control regulates behaviour through established norms 25 3. To regulate or control individual behaviour: No two persons are alike and even the children of same parents are not having same attitudes. If an individual is left free to behave in the society it would be reduced to a jungle. Social control protects the social interests by regulating the individuals’ behaviour To provide social sanction: Social control provides social sanction through customs, folkways, mores etc To check cultural mal adjustment: Society is subject to change and individual tries to adjust to the changing society during this process he or she is likely to develop some habits which may not be right or he may become slave of passions e. g. visiting bars, night clubs etc. Social control helps to stop this mal adjustment 4. 5. LECTURE NO.: 8. LEADERSHIP – MEANING, CLASSIFICATION OF LEADERS, ROLES OF A LEADER AND DIFFERENT METHODS IN SELECTION OF A LEADER Definitions of leader: Leader is a person who exerts an influence over a number of people Leader is one who leads by initiation of social behavior, by directing, organizing or controlling the efforts of others, by prestige or power or position Leader is a person who is spontaneously considered or chosen as influential in a given situation. In every society certain individuals operate within groups to guide and influence members to action. These individuals are referred as leaders Leadership is defined as an activity in which effort is made to influence people to cooperate in achieving a goal viewed by the group as desirable — Rogers and Olmsted Leadership is defined as the role and status of one or more individuals in the structure and functioning of group organizations, which enable these groups to meet a need or purpose that can be achieved only through the co-operation of the members of the group Hepple Classification of leadership or Types of leaders: There are several classifications of leaders. For example the leaders may be classified in terms of the types of groups they work with such as political, military, business, religious, recreational leaders etc. Whyte has classified leaders in to 4 categories as follows, 1. Operational leaders: those persons who actually initiate action within the group, regardless of whether or not they hold an elected office 2. Popularity leaders: means in a group a popular person will be elected to a position of leadership because the members like him. Sometimes such an individual may or may 26 not be the actual leader of the group. Such persons holding elective positions do very little about initiating action for the group and are mere figureheads or ornamental leaders. They are also called nominal leaders 3. Assumed representative type: refers to a person selected to work with a committee or other leaders because the latter (Group B) have assumed that he represents another group (Group A) they desire to work with; he may or may not be a leader of the group (Group A) Group A Group B ARL 4. Prominent talent: e. g. artists and musicians who have exhibited an outstanding ability and accomplishment in their respective fields. It may include the experts and intellectual leaders Another classification divides leaders in to 2 categories: 1. Professional leaders: the professional leader is one who has received specific specialized training in the field. He works full time as an occupation and is paid for his work. E. G. Extension Officer, Gram Sevak, Agricultural Officer etc. 2. Lay leaders: the lay leader may or may not have received special training, is not paid for his work and usually works part time e. g. youth club president, Gram Sahayak etc. Lay leaders also called as Volunteer leaders, or local leaders or natural leaders. These local leaders may be either formal leaders or informal leaders, depending on whether they are regular office bearers of organized groups or not Perhaps the most significant classification form the viewpoint of modern research as well as practical application of the results of research is the one designating them into the following three types 1. Autocratic leader: Autocratic leader is also known as authoritarian leader. He operates as if he cannot trust people. He thinks his subordinates are never doing what they should do; that the employee is paid to work and therefore must work. If he is a benevolent (kind) autocrat he may tend to view employees as children and encourage them to come to him with all their problems, no matter what is the nature or magnitude of the problem. The results of his leadership are a. Most employees develop a sense of frustration, and finally feel insecure in their job b. Work slows down or stops completely when the supervisor is away 27 c. The employee’s needs for a feeling of importance and satisfaction are not met d. Employees are kept dependent on the supervisor; thus they have no opportunity to show initiative e. Employees frequently either become aggressive or alternatively identify closely with supervisor (submissive yes-men) 2. Democratic leader: He shares with the group members the decision making and planning of activities. The participation of all members is encouraged. He works to develop a feeling of responsibility on the part of every member of the group. He attempts to understand the position and feelings of the employee. If he criticizes, he does so in terms of results expected, rather than on the basis of personalities. The results of his leadership are a. Employees produce a larger quantity and higher quality of work b. Individual and group morale are high c. Employee’s basic needs to participate and feel important are met d. Employees feel secure e. Employees seldom become aggressive f. The supervisor finds that less supervision is necessary 3. Laissez-faire leader: He believes that if you leave workers alone, the work will be done. He seems to have no confidence in himself. If at all possible he puts off decision-making. He tends to withdraw from the work group. He is often a rationalizer. The results of his leadership are a. Low morale and low productivity within the work group b. Employees are restless and lack incentive of ‘ team work’ c. Another leader often an informal leader arises d. Problems of administration supervision, and coordination are multiplied and symptoms of disorder ‘ anarchy’ are seen Roles of leader in a Group: Groups are dependent on leaders. A leader is not only a member of group and also is the focal point of activity of his group. He plays an important role in group’s activity. The important roles of the leader are as follows: 1. Group initiator: the most important role of leader is that he should take initiative to get the group in to action 2. Group spokesman: if the group is to have outside relations it must be able to speak as a unit and leader is its voice. Leader has the responsibility of speaking for the group and representing the interests of the group 3. Group harmonizer: in all groups uniformities and differences are formed. A leader should be able to resolve differences peacefully. The role of the group harmonizer is to promote harmony in the group in line with basic purpose of the group 28 4. Group planner: generally it is assumed that the person chosen for leadership know a little bit more about the problems which the group is facing and the possible solutions. So the leader has to plan the way by which the group can satisfy its needs. The leader has to plan for the group and with the group 5. Group executive: the leader is one who takes important role in conducting business of the group and he is responsible for seeing that the business of the organization is carried on according to democratic principles. It is the job of the leader that individuals of group accept responsibility of their part of activities in any plan of action adopted by the group 6. Group educator or teacher: in most of the groups the leader will have more training and experience. So the leader can teach according to the level of understanding of the members of the group so that they can understand his views. In this capacity his chief function is to develop and train other leaders so that group is not dependent completely on him 7. Group symbol or symbol of group ideas: all social groups have implicit (internal) or explicit (external) norms or ideals. As a rule persons accepted as leaders are those who have adopted these norms or ideals and live by them. The leader must make the members feel that they need ideals and depend upon them for accomplishing what they desire to do, the leader should be not be self interested 8. Group supervisor: the leader also acts as supervisor. A good leader supervises the work of his peers and subordinates. Professional leaders such as Extension Officers, in addition to serving as leaders of social groups also devote a portion of their time to working with lay leaders and group organizations like youth clubs, cooperatives etc. Different methods of selection of both professional and lay leaders: Selection of Professional Leaders: A. Interview: professional leadership. It is based primarily upon an interview and an evaluation of past academic and occupational records of the individual. A large amount of information concerning a person can be acquired through an interview 2. The chief difficulty with the interview is that one can observe and evaluate the applicant only as he answers questions during a brief period of time 3. In industry and management there has been an attempt o supplement the interview by subjecting applicants to a battery of tests 4. These tests measure ability, aptitudes, attitudes and interests and both the academic training and practical experience 5. The use of a battery of tests along with an interview provides a better basis for selection than using the interview alone 1. The time-honored and most widely used method of selecting persons for position of 29 B. Performance Tests: 1. These have been used in certain situations as a part of the basis for selection of professional leaders 2. One type of these is the ‘ Leaderless group tests’ in which seven or eight persons are given a common task to perform and it is left up to the persons involved to determine which person have become the leader 3. Another type of test is to appoint an individual as a leader and then observe how well he directs the activities of the members of the group 4. The big advantage of these performance tests is that one can observe the potential leader in a real life situation in which he is functioning as the leader of a group Selection of lay leaders: A. Sociometry: 1. Sociometry is concerned primarily with obtaining choices in inter-personal relations, such as with whom one would like to work, play etc. or to whom one would go for advice on farming or other problems 2. It attempts to describe social phenomena in quantitative terms 3. It may be used in selecting professional leaders also, but of greater use in selection of lay leaders 4. It is necessary that all the persons involved in a sociometric test know one another. These tests are not designed to measure vague factor called popularity, but it is popularity of acceptance in terms of specific activities 5. Sociograms for the same individuals will manifest (bring out) differences when the choices are in relation to different activities. This method is very useful to the extension worker in finding out the natural or local or informal leaders in the villages 6. An extension worker goes into a given area and asks the farmers to indicate whom; they ordinarily consult for advice on farming, which the extension worker wants to introduce. Usually after a few interviews, it becomes apparent (clear) which farmer is the influential person on natural leader. The figure below illustrates the Sociometry test A H G C F E D B SOCIOGRAM 30 7. When farmer H is interviewed he may indicate that generally he goes to B for advice on farming, farmers G, F, D may also say that they take advice from farmer B on farming. The farmers A, E and C are depending on farmers H, F and D respectively. Then B is the operational or potential natural leader for these farmers and therefore if extension worker induces farmer B for the adoption of new improved practices it is quiet likely that the other farmers will be influenced by