In 1948, Roxas declared amnesty for those arrested for collaborating with the Japanese during World War II, except for those who had committed violent crimes. He accepted the offer of the Americans regarding the two laws enacted namely the Bell Trade Act and the War Damage act, which continued the existing free trade between the Philippines and the United States. These laws provided financial aid worth millions of pesos to begin the rehabilitation of our country.
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His six years as president were marked by notable post-war reconstruction, general economic gains, and increased economic aid from the United States He created the Agricultural Credit Cooperatives Financing Administration (ACCFA) to facilitate the financial help extended to the farmers. He also emphasized import substitution policy. He underscored the control on importation to solve the trade deficit and to achieve positive balance of trade. He reported activities of the government to the people through radio broadcasts so that the people will know what is going on in the country and what the programs of the government are. He was able to bring the government closer to the people.
As president, he was a close friend and supporter of the United States and a vocal spokesman against communism during the Cold War. He led the foundation of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization also known as the Manila Pact of 1954, which aimed to defend South East Asia, South Asia and the South-western Pacific from communism. He was also known for his integrity and strength of character. During his term, he made Malacañang Palace literally a “ house of the people”, opening its gates to the public. He improved the lives of the people in the barrios. He constructed bridges, roads, and irrigations. He started to solve the problem on land through the Land Reform Act of 1955; he gave emphasis on the welfare of the poor farmers who desired to own agricultural land. Carlos P. Garcia
During his administration, he acted on the Bohlen–Serrano Agreement which shortened the lease of the US Bases from 99 years to 25 years and made it renewable after every five years. He also exercised the Filipino First Policy, for which he was known. This policy heavily favored Filipino businessmen over foreign investors. He was also responsible for changes in retail trade which greatly affected the Chinese businessmen in the country. He gave priority to Filipino industries in the distribution of resources. He supported the Retail Nationalization Trade Act. He revived the Filipino culture by giving recognition to the outstanding contributions of Filipino artists, scientists, writers, musicians, historians and inventors.
During his presidency, the Philippines enjoyed prosperity and was the second most developed country in the Asian region, next only to Japan and ahead of the future tiger economies of Asia such as Singapore, Taiwan, and Korea. He allowed the Philippine peso to float on the free currency exchange market. He started the abolition of tenancy and accompanying land reform program in the Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 which underscored his endeavour to fight mass poverty. He established the Land Bank of the Philippines.
Ferdinand E. Marcos
During his first term he had made progress in agriculture, industry, and education. Yet his administration was troubled by increasing student demonstrations and violent urban-guerrilla activities. Initially, he had a good record as president and the Filipinos expected him to be one of the best. However, conditions changed in later years and his popularity with the people started diminishing. He implemented a number of economic programs. These programs helped the country to enjoy the period of economic growth from the mid-1970s until the early 1980s. National income increased rapidly, production was high; and land reform was introduced under Presidential Decree Nos. 2 and 27. He proclaimed Martial Law.
Corazon C. Aquino
Despite the euphoria following the overthrow of the Marcos government, Aquino faced the massive challenge of restoring the nation. She established a revolutionary government under the terms of a provisional “ Freedom Constitution”, legally establishing the structure of the government pending the adoption of a permanent, democratically-drafted constitution. She restored the democracy in the country that is why she was called “ Icon of Democracy”. She implemented the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP) to emphasize the farmers through Republic Act 6657. Her administration approved the Value Added Tax (VAT) as a tax reform
. Fidel V. Ramos
The first few years of his administration (1992-1995) were characterized by economic boom, technological development, political stability and efficient delivery of basic needs to the people. During his administration, Ramos began implementing economic reforms intended to open up the once-closed national economy, encourage private enterprise, invite more foreign and domestic investment, and reduce corruption. His administration also enacted the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Law which is a system wherein private investors are invited to build certain government projects like railways, highways, power plants and other infrastructures using their own financial services. He implemented the Medium Term Philippine Development Plan, which was called “ Philippines 2000” with the objectives of economic improvement and upliftment through global competitiveness and people empowerment. Joseph E. Estrada
(1998-January 20, 2001)
Idolized by the poor, he campaigned on a combination of policies that are both market-friendly and designed to reduce widespread poverty in a population of 70 million. He signed into law and implemented Republic Act No. 8749 better known as Clean Air Act, which promotes and protects the global environment to attain sustainable development. He launched the Magkabalikat Para sa Kaularang Agraryo or MAGKASAKA to help the farmers alleviate their lives and provide them with enough capital. He established a new agency called National Anti-Poverty Commission (NAPC) to enhance the Angat Pinoy program.
Gloria Macapagal Arroyo
(January 20, 2001-2010)
Arroyo, a practicing economist, has made the economy the focus of her presidency. Early in her presidency, Arroyo implemented a controversial policy of holiday economics, adjusting holidays to form longer weekends with the purpose of boosting domestic tourism and allowing Filipinos more time with their families. She gave more jobs, better economy, stronger pesos, more foreign investment, grew tourism, did a better job representing the Philippines at World meetings than any other Philippine President, withdrew from Iraq knowing it would upset the U. S. A., reduced national debt, and did the hard unpopular things to make the Philippines more fiscally sound.
Benigno “ Noynoy” Aquino III
(June 30, 2010-Present)
Foreign Investments amounting to $ 2. 4 billion dollars is expected to come in which will directly generate 43, 600 jobs for the Filipinos. Jumpstarted Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) which is expected to generate more jobs once bidding for the projects is done. Strengthened implementation of conditional cash transfers, beneficiaries for next year increased to 2. 3 million for 2011 from 1 million families this year. Budget for education for 2011 is up from 175 billion pesos to 207. 3 billion pesos to spend for the construction of 13, 147 classrooms and hiring of 10, 000 teachers. DepEd unveiled its proposed K+12 curriculums to improve education system in the Philippines. DOH held the PhilHealth National Registration Day which targeted 4. 7 million indigent families.