Part i: media theory-gender, race, and class

Part I: Media Theory-Gender, Race, and Class I. Media Theory/Cultural Studies Approach A. Cultural Studies Approach- three-part method of analysis that includes examining 1) political economy, 2) textual analysis, and 3) audience reception. B. Kellner suggests analyzing all three areas is necessary to understand the media “‘ chain’ from production to consumption. ” C. Political economy- examines how texts are produced within a society marked by class, gender, and racial inequality. (Decisions about content, financing and what is ultimately produced and circulated in the media) D. Textual analysis- provides insights into how texts are structured and how to analyze their ideological significance. Assumes media representations are never just simple “ reflections of reality. ” (My Super Sweet 16) E. Audience reception- how audiences interpret, make sense of, understand, and use the text. II. Recent Changes in Global Media Industries A. Growth- through mergers and buyouts media corporations are larger than ever. B. Integration- expanding ownership in a vertical (stages of production) or horizontal (multiple forms of media) manner. C. Globalization-marketing of media products is now worldwide. D. Concentration of ownership- fewer companies own larger shares of media markets. E. Increased television sales/ownership is directly correlated to the access media conglomerates have to sell the “ American Dream. ” F. New technologies at one time VCR’s and now DVD’s allows consumers to view films (including pornography) from the privacy of their own home. G. Implications? H. Hegemony-James Lull defines term as “ the power of dominance that one social group holds over another. I. Polysemy- the openness of a text; the capability of a text to take on multiple meanings. III. Analyzing Gender, Race, and Class A. Ideology- defined by Stuart Hall as “ Those images, concepts, and premises…through which we represent, understand, and ‘ make sense” of some aspect of social existence. ” B. Social constructs- analyzing not from a biological or “ nature” approach but rather focusing on social, economic, and political forces that shape and reshape conceptual categories over time and place. C. Feminism- assumes women are “ not born but made”- the process of taking on “ feminine” gender attributes begins at birth and requires intensive socialization. 1. A given culture’s idea of the perfect woman can change dramatically in response to changing economic and social conditions. (ex. Rosie the Riveter (WWII), housewife images of the 1950’s, the working mom of today) D. Queer theory- argues against the taken-for—granted notion that there are only two genders. Instead the assumption is that both gender and sexuality (desire) are ambiguous, shifting, unstable, and too complex for the binary model. E. Critical race theory- aims to reveal the social nature of our racial ideas by focusing on how the idea of “ whiteness” evolved and functioned in the context of European and American political history. F. Class- presumptions regarding the rich and poor 1. rich- educated, elite, cultured 2. poor- uneducated, working-class, uncultured G. Remember gender, race, and class are most usefully understood not as independent categories but rather as a group intertwined in complex ways.