Kidney Failure: Causes, Signs, and Recommendations


Kidneys are body organs that are found around the lower back of the body’s system. Their work is to filter blood to remove waste from the body. Later, they send the toxins to one’s bladder, and, during urination, these toxins are removed from the body. Kidney failure is a condition in which the kidney loses the ability to balance fluid and remove waste from the blood. When the ability of filtering is lost, blood’s chemicals may get out of balance due to dangerous levels of waste which may accumulate. This essay will analyze kidney failure, its causes, the definition of some of the concepts recommendations, and conclusions concerning the malfunction of the kidneys.

There are two types of kidney malfunction which include acute and chronic renal failure. The acute stage is whereby a usually reversible syndrome of glomerular filtration declines abruptly while chronic renal failure is when the kidney function is persistently impaired. The progression of this disease is associated with several serious complications such as anemia, hyperlipidemia, metabolic bone disease, and cardiovascular disease. Once these conditions appear one should go for screening and receive optimal treatment to reduce deaths and morbidity, thus, to accomplish this goal, a multidisciplinary approach is required.

Kidney malfunction happens to be one of the most significant health complications that are affecting many people around the world. While focusing on the increasing number of diabetic and hypertension patients and the growing elderly population, the number of patients with renal or kidney disease will increase significantly (Al-Qumboz et al., 2019). Some possible signs and symptoms include persistent nausea, excessive drowsiness or fatigue, seizures, pain, or pressure in the chest. Others include confusion, persistent nausea, and coma, reduced amount of urine, and swelling of feet, legs, and ankles from retention of fluids caused by the failure of the kidney to eliminate water waste from the body.

Several factors cause this complication including, first, reduced blood flow to the kidneys. This can be contributed by liver failure, dehydration, heart disease, severe infections high blood pressure, and also heart attack (Neuen et al., 2019). Secondly, urine elimination problems whereby the body cannot eliminate urine, thus allowing toxins to accumulate and overload the kidneys. Some cancer can lead to problems such as colon, cervical, prostate, and bladder. Other conditions which may lead to interference of the urination are blood clots within the urinary tract, damaged bladder nerves, and kidney stones. The rest of the renal failures are infections, drugs, and alcohol, lupus, vacuities, uncontrolled diabetes, certain antibiotics, an overload of toxins, and a blood clot in or around one’s kidneys.

Definition of Terms Used

Below are some of the common and important terms that are used in the medical field concerning kidney disorders. Cardiovascular risk is related to the increased renal impairment in the course of kidney disease, and it is a much more serious stage than kidney failure itself. Moderate degrees of renal impairment which are even mild can lead to cardiovascular risk increment. Hypertension is a traditional risk factor and can also contribute to a cardiovascular condition. Dyslipidemia is a common risk factor among patients with kidney failure and it is due to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality (Kalantar et al., 2020) When renal function declines the prevalence of hyperlipidemia increases. There are several contributing factors to the development of dyslipidemia that are associated with chronic renal impairment.

Pathophysiology can be described by some events which happen during an acute insult in the setting of acute renal failure and also gradually throughout cases of chronic disease. It can be broadly classified into three groups which are obstruction of urine outflow, intrinsic renal parenchymal disease, and the decrease in renal blood flow.

Histopathology changes sub-sequentially occur as insult continues and they include disruption of filtration leading to sclerosis, glomerular architecture, and abnormal podocyte function. Pathogenesis of renal failure is defined clinically as a result of inadequate renal perfusion associated with a decrease in arterial or venous obstruction, impediment of urine flow as occurs in uropathy, renal injury, and effective circulation due to sudden loss of renal function (Wong al., 2018). It becomes chronic when interstitial fibrosis develops from edema of the interstitial which occurs in the early stage of the disease. The dialysis process is done by a machine, and it performs the function of the kidney which is purifying and filtering of the blood. One may be connected to a portable catheter bag or a large machine according to the type of dialysis. During dialysis, one needs to follow a low salt diet and also low potassium. Dialysis extends one’s life if one attends regular and scheduled treatments but does not cure kidney failure.

Conclusion and Recommendations

Having healthy kidneys is essential, as they play a vital role in the body, that of filtering waste, excess water and also removing the other impurities in the blood. Kidney disease affects many adult people and occurs when the kidneys cannot perform their functions. Chronic conditions, diabetes, and high blood pressure are some of the diseases that can cause damage. The condition could cause some health problems which include malnutrition, and weak bones nerve damage, and many others. The kidneys can completely fail to work if the disease gets worse over time.

Therefore, kidney transplantation, performing kidney dialysis therapy are other solutions. Some of the effects caused by kidney failure include scleroderma, multiple myeloma, glomerulonephritis, a disorder that causes blood clots in small vessels, chemotherapy drugs that treat cancer among others (Hole et al., 2016). Types of kidney failures are acute intrinsic, acute prerenal kidney failure, chronic prerenal, and intrinsic kidney failure, and lastly, chronic post-renal kidney failure. There are five stages of kidney failure and they range from mild which is stage one to stage five, and this is kidney failure, and complications and symptoms increase.

Finally, as mentioned earlier, treatment options for kidney failure may be wide, but it depends on the cause of failure and the steps one can take to reduce the risk. Follow the advice of the doctor and make sure strict and proper usage of the medication and adhering to the prescriptions offered by the doctor. One should also take keen observation when buying over-the-counter medications. Early detection and treatment of chronic causes of kidney malfunction, such as diabetes and heart disease, keeping a good lifestyle, reducing sodium intake, drinking more water, regular exercise, consuming a balanced diet, not smoking, and restricting alcohol consumption. Nephrologists and primary caregivers are making strides that are significant towards improving and extending the lives of renal disease. Therefore, a renal failure patient needs nutritional changes, and a health care provider can recommend a reduced kidney function patient to carefully choose foods.


Al-Qumboz, M., Elsharif, A., Samy, I., & Abu-Naser, S. (2019). Kidney Expert System Diseases and Symptoms. International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER), 3(5), 1-10.

Hole, B., Tonkin C. S., Caskey, F. J., & Roderick, P. (2016). Treatment of end stage kidney failure without renal replacement therapy. In seminars in dialysis, 29(6), 491-506. Web.

Kalantar-Zadeh, K., Wightman, A., & Liao, S. (2020). Ensuring choice for people with kidney failure—dialysis, supportive care, and hope. New England Journal of Medicine, 383(2), 99-101. Web.

Neuen, B. L., Young, T., Heerspink, H. J., Neal, B., Perkovic, V., Billot, L. Mahaffey, K., Charytan, D., Wheeler, D., Amott, C., Bompoint, S., Levin, & A., Jardine, M., (2019). SGLT2 inhibitors for the prevention of kidney failure in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 7(11), 845-854. Web.

Wong, A. T., Mannix, C., Grantham, J. J., Allman-Farinelli, M., Badve, S. V., Boudville, N, & Erickson, B. J. (2018). Randomised controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of prescribed water intake to prevent kidney failure due to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (Prevent-ADPKD). BMJ Open, 8(1). Web.