In psychological and physiological aspect, thispersonalityis influenced by biological processes and needs and it gives an impact to the behaviors and actions. It means that it causes us to do something or acting in certain ways other than responding ourenvironment. There is a few of personality types and thus, in this case, as the workplace is an environment of workers, hence, this is categorized as behavioral personal theory which is the personality is rising because of the environment such as the structure of organization.
As we have a personality, others can see our expression (multiple expressions) such s our thoughts, feeling and other social interactions. We should have a matured personality in workplace and what we had had when we are working will be our incentive to be better person or improve our own personality whereby our behavior is changes as we are getting older and experienced people (Cherry, n. D. ). 2. 0 LEARNING AS A PROCESS OF CHANGING IN BEHAVIOR It cannot be denied that learning is cause behavior to change. (Husking and Buchanan, 2010).
As a result of experienced, there is a permanent change in behavior. Van Rostrums and Hammer (2004) in their study stated that learning as a initiative increment in knowledge which is obtaining data or knowing a lot. In the learning theories, there are several paradigms of learning theory which are behaviorism, cosmogonist, and humanism. (Anon. 2008, 2012, Index of learning theories and models). When looking into the behavioral theory of learning, it is supporting Husking and Buchanan opinion. This is because it is definitely we are in other environment when experiencing something.
Behavior was formed through positive or negative reinforcement. Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement raise the probability that the antecedent behavior will take place. In the cosmogonist, it is emphasized on mental activities such as thinking, memorizing, and knowing. In learning, mind is useful as we are learning by using it. Thus, it is discussing on the internal mental process such as insight, information processing, memory and perception. Its purpose was to develop capacity skills to learn better (Smith, M.
K, 1999, 2003). Hence, in this case, learning was defined as change in a learner’s schemata which is an internal representation and probably not really much influenced one’s behavior because it is only relates on knowledge inside. (Anon. 2008). At a glance, looking into humanist theory of learning it is viewing about the personal act to fulfill potential. Or as mentioned by Hut (2001) and Moored (1996), humanism focuses on the freedom, dignity, and potential of people whereby they actually act with intentionality and ethics values.
According to Hut, this theory actually is an opposite of behavioral theory where all the behavior is the product of the application of consequences. But nevertheless, I do think so that it is definitely changing one’s behavior because as this theory aim is someone will be an autonomous in handling something. This is because, humanist believes that it is necessary to study the person as a whole including how the individual grows and develops over the lifep. In humanist, there is a change from non autonomous to autonomous.
Hence, when relating these theories on Husking and Buchanan idea which telling that learning is a process that leads to change behavior, the most suitable theory used is the behavior theory to support it. It is because easy to learn certain basic learning situations as well. As we had had something in our life, for sure, we will know it or get the information about it and this information will influence our own behavior whether to be behave mannerly or instead. 3. 0MOTIVATIONTHEORIES WHICH ARE RELATED TO WORKING WORLDS AND INDIVIDUAL 3. The importance of pays when choosing a Job When we are looking for a Job, there are some aspects should be considered. Not only in terms of salary, paths, benefits and advancement should be considered as well. However, pays also can be considered as an important thing in choosing a Job due to several reasons. According to Herrings motivation-hygiene theory (1959), when we give pays or salary as our priority in looking for a Job, it will be our satisfaction if the salary oilfield our needs. But, if the salary is lower, it leads to our dissatisfaction then.
Hence, it caused our attitudes change again in our Job and as a result, maybe we wanted to resign from that Job. As the cost of living getting higher nowadays, the wages and salary of a Job is very important to sustain our own life moreover if we have a lot of dependent to care of as well as our ownfamily. For instance, we have to take care of our child definitely and our sibling whose still study. In general, everyone needs the expenditures in this world. Thus, it is absolutely high pays is important as the modernization is getting deter and the expenses rate also increase steadily from time to time.
Nevertheless, when looking into theory of McGregor which is X and Y, written by Dry. Keen K, T and Proof. Dry. Raglan, S. (2009), theory Y refers to the positive view man in which someone looking for a Job because this worker look upon work as something natural Just like resting which means he or she already interested on that kind of Job. Here means, salaries may not be at the top of his or her list when looking for a Job but the important factor is how interested are you and love on that Job otherwise. This is because, McGregor theory X said that workers are not ambitious if they did not love their Job and organization’s objective.
In the Mascots hierarchy of needs theory also did not emphasized the important ofmoneyor salary. He categorized that there are five types of needs in his theory which are physiological that refers tofood, clothes and shelter, safety which is safety from emotions and physical, social which refers to sense of belongings in relationships, acceptance andfriendship, esteem or self-esteem, autonomy, achievement, appreciation or recognition, and self-actualization needs that refers to the achieving ambitions, self potential or fulfillment and growth in the said organization.
Therefore, holding a post in there. In the earlier theories of motivation, there is no theory that really emphasized on personal autonomy. However, when looking personal leading, it can be accepted that he or she has the autonomy in his or her organization. But however, this leader should be creative in his or her ways to run the organization to be effective. Nevertheless, in my opinion, in the work teams or work motivation, personal autonomy also important in working and it also might be not really important due to ewe factors.
Let discuss why it does not important first and the importance of it will be second path. First and foremost, when there is autonomy among the workers, someone will have dominance there and thus the others employee will refer to this dominant person only. It can be said that, he or she is acting like a leader. As a result this organization will not be effective in running their business. It means that, this person leading the team works. Let say, this person has limited business knowledge about the company or technical matters, but still wanted to be the dominant one.
Thus, it cannot be effective then and the business said also will not perform perfectly. Therefore, the better way is everyone should be dominant and open-minded in the organization. Next, although the personal autonomy can give a chance to someone to determine someone’s action or behaviors, it does not mean that it is good for someone to correct someone else. For instance, if the determined behavior was criticized hardly or in the bad manners, it will lead to conflicts to occur to few individuals or employees.
Even though Mascots hierarchy of needs theory mentioned that there is esteem needs which is refers to the autonomy of an individual so that he or she has high level of self esteem on what they are doing, it means that everyone must have this esteem as a motivator to achieve thegoals. All members in an organization should give a full commitment on their Job so that the workers do not work alone. Its mean, they should cooperate together to achieve their objective as stated in the equity theory of motivation.
Same goes to Miscellany’s Three Needs Theory which are need for achievement, need for power and need for affiliation. The successive achievement is only achieved when there are people irking together for example in sharing their ideas, open in the new ideas shared, supporting each other and so on. However, based on the new theories of motivation which is the work features model, created by Richard Hickman and Greg R. Lolled, the autonomy is providing feeling of personalresponsibility.
This theory is helping the workers to interpret task under five core dimensions comprising which are skills variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. In this case, autonomy can be said important in procedures of carrying out a task. Buss, S (2008) said that most of people want to be autonomous because they want to e accountable and good self-integration. It is because these persons ought to be allowed to govern themselves. In this case, someone may determine one’s action as it is our right to be self determining, our right to choose how we live our lives.
In order to be able to be autonomous we should be in touch with our selves because personal autonomy is self directing. It Just like we do not want others controlled us anymore. As we are the one who is autonomous, we can improve ourselves and others in the organization and next might be achieve what the goals that had been determined by the organization. Since we are the autonomous also, we have a power as a leader to influence and lead others, who builds trust with followers by always being honest as we already have self-confidence, intelligence which lead us to be autonomous. Dry. Keen K, T and Proof. Dry. Raglan, S (2009). That was why someone is getting better if he or she emphasized the personal autonomy when working. In the expectancy theory of motivation introduced by Victor Broom, he said that the individual perform depending on the expectation that their actions will be followed by an outcome and the attraction power of that outcome. In this case, everyone would be autonomous so that he or she can expect their outcome at the final part of job.
Hence, personal autonomy is important because if someone already had it, it leads him or her to achieve their own goals successfully. Therefore, as a conclusion, it is better to be an autonomous because of several reasons that had been discussed above as personal autonomy is the priority to growth in the business or in the Job world. Even though the weaknesses of personal autonomy were discussed, but there is a solution on how to overcome it and to be better. 4. 0COMMUNICATIONCommunication can be interpreted as a process or flows.
It takes place when there is a sender or source and the receiver taking part and the source should have an idea or information to transfer to the receiver besides it needs a purpose which is displayed in the form of a message delivered by a sender to a receiver (Moored, 1996). It also can be considered as a process of transferring information from one part of the business to another that leads to some outcome, changed behavior or changed practice. Communication can be in written or verbal forms other than formal or informal communication. Of a message. Thus, as the result, the communication will not be effective anymore.
Thence, we can see that several obstacles of communication which always distorted the message of somebody else. First and foremost, the communication is obstructed by the perception and language. For instance, when the sender talk about something which is a general topic, but the receiver has thought about something else and perhaps specifically or maybe in depth which the sender and receiver has their own thinking in this case. Thus, their message could not be delivered effectively. Besides, the language used by sender is not understandable by the receiver, so it is also can be a barrier to their immunization.
Secondly, there is filtering. In the book entitle Introductory Management by Dry. Raglan, S. And Dry. Keen K. T. (2009), filtering is an action that is manipulating the idea or opinion of someone so that it is more receptive to the receiver. Thus, the information that filtered from the origin will be different at the last receiver. In this case, the actual information already manipulated and there is no true information anymore. Other than that is the distraction and deceptive tactic. It means, for an example, when a speaker giving a speech in front of people, there is something that convert our concentration for instance a noise.
In terms of deceptive tactic, it is a strategy that may stop someone from performing actions. As an example is there is ample of people in front of you in the hall, and as a result, you are shocked and cannot perform. It can be said that fear of communicating also is a barrier of Last but not least, the problem rises in communication is when there is overload of information. This is occurs when someone has too much of facts. When the receiver receives a lot of information in the same time, it will leads to him or she cannot catch hat are the points had been delivered.
This is because when there is more information than the data that we can analyzed and used, it causes us cannot talk effectively at all if we have to deliver the sender’s message before to others because we already have many facts that confusing our mind. Therefore, most of us who did not learn communication skills will face the communication problem as mentioned above. Not only that but in the communication itself, it is normally having these types of problems in an organization as well. Communication process would not be effective if these barriers are rises.
However, there are some solutions on how to overcome these problems. 4. 3 Overcoming the barrier of communication As a manager, he or she should know how to solve or overcome the communication problems. It is important to manager to know this because this person is who is discuss about the tactics that can be used by managers to overcome the communication barriers. The manager might use feedback to overcome communication barrier. Let say, there is misunderstanding and inaccuracies in their organization, thus, this manager can ask question or request receivers to paraphrase hat has been said in their own words.
Hence, the feedback here encompasses everything more than merely saying ” yes” and ” no”. Feedback can be verbal and non- verbal forms. The second one will be simplification of language. The manager can used this tactic to solve the communication problem in which he or she should select their words and structure their messages in a way which will enhance and widen up their understanding. In additional to this, the technical language also can be used to encourage understanding in groups but this will pose several problems to people who are outside the group. In this case, the manager must be cautious when using technical language.
Next is to be an active listening besides foster open communication climate to the employees. This is because, by listening, it is actually the process of seeking meaning as opposed to passive listening. In this case, both the sender and receiver are thinking and exchanging their ideas which means, this situation will encourages both receiver and the speaker to interact actively. Other than that is by observing non-verbal symbols and commit to ethical communication. In order to deliver the message effectively, these managers should know non-verbal humbly acted by his or her employees.