Innovation and sustainability research paper examples

Give specific examples of at least two production and two consumption habits humans have related to material resources

There are various activities that human beings undertake in an effort to expand the commercial and domestic production and consumption processes and these activities are likely to cause adverse impacts on the sustainability of the indigenous flora and fauna. The most known production process that has impacted the environment negatively is the increased activities in the manufacturing industries. These industries emit hazardous gases such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and chlorofluorocarbon gases as well as the waste products such as dirty water and unnecessary end products. If these harmful gases are not carefully managed, they end up polluting the atmosphere resulting in more destructive effects which is harmful to other flora and fauna species (Slattery, 2007). For instance, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide causes acid rain once exposed to the atmosphere and this affects the growth of plants and death of aquatic animals, while chlorofluorocarbons affects the ozone layer, a case which has greatly contributed to global warming and a leading factor in causes of skin cancer. Discharging industrial waste such as untreated waste water to rivers and lakes causes death of aquatic animals while disposing solid materials to the environment has caused increase in air and soil pollution.
Another production process that humans engage in is the effort to create more space for industrial expansion. This process involves clearing of natural environments such as forests and reclamation of water masses so as to create space to build more factories and industries. This also requires cutting down trees to yield timber which will be used for construction. Depletion of natural environment leads to destruction of natural habitats of animals as well as depleting the survival rate of indigenous plants, as well as resulting to environmental issues such as pollution and erosion.
The basic human consumption that has a direct impact on the other species is the type of energy fuel used both for domestic and commercial purposes such as gas, petrol firewood and charcoal. The process of attaining charcoal involves cutting down of trees while the gas and petrol that is used in personal vehicles emit harmful carbon dioxide gases to the atmosphere. Carbon leads to greenhouse effects which lead to global warming issues (Slattery, 2007.
Human settlement and creation of food as a consumption process involves clearing natural environment to build houses, shopping malls and other forms of infrastructure. This causes destruction of indigenous plants that are cut down in the process and at the same time affecting the porous ground which leads to rising cases of erosion.

Discuss efforts that must be considered about these production and consumption habits in order to sustain the global population.

Industries should adopt responsible ways of disposing solid waste to reduce pollution by recycling and reusing them or use biodegradable products that have less impact to the surrounding. Treating waste water and emitted gases before releasing them to the atmosphere can also reduce the climate issues which are likely to affect the future global population.
Consumption methods such as using unleaded petrol on automobiles can reduce the emission of harmful gases to the environment. Also people should try to settle at a more compact place which will reduce the destruction of environment in search of large settlement land. Re-afforestation method can also aid in replacing the natural trees which have been cut down since trees plays an integral role of preventing erosion and purifying the air by reducing the amount of carbon dioxide produced during the human production and consumption processes.


Slattery, M. (2007). Contemporary Environmental Issues: Land use change and biodiversity loss. Texas Christian University.
Govorushko, S. M. (2012). Natural Processes and Human Impacts: Interactions between Humanity and the Environment. Springer Press.