Health Promotion Literature Review


The health promotion problem is the identification of prevention measures for communicable diseases in the community. There are numerous studies on the effectiveness of measures aimed at preventing infectious diseases. According to Franco, Bilal and Diez-Roux (2015), primary prevention works best in the prevention of the communicable diseases. Primary prevention involves preventing the communicable disease through measures such as health education. The most common approach to the prevention of communicable diseases is the manipulation of the causative agent, the disease host, and the environment (Franco, Bilal, & Diez-Roux, 2015). The theoretical approach used is the Tannahill model of health promotion.

Literature Review

The causative agents of communicable diseases include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi, and other microorganisms (Franco, Bilal, & Diez-Roux, 2015). According to Reubi, Herrick and Brown (2015), the causative agents of communicable diseases can be controlled through extermination, immobilization, or preventing their reproduction and multiplication. However, this method of control is the most effective as the microorganisms are often multiple. Additionally, the control of communicable diseases by targeting the causative organisms is often non-specific and requires plenty of resources (Reubi, Herrick, & Brown, 2015).

The second method of control where the host is targeted yields some success (Franco, Bilal, & Diez-Roux, 2015). Immunity for the host is often the target of the interventions targeting the human host. Research in the area of immunology has led to the development of preventive vaccines for human and animal consumption (Reubi, Herrick, & Brown, 2015). These prevent the acquisition of the communicable diseases or prevent the development of severe complications. In addition, Reubi, Herrick and Brown (2015) state that acquired immunity assists the host to keep infection levels below the threshold. Treating communicable diseases is also preventive. According to Franco, Bilal, and Diez-Roux, (2015), this measure is secondary prevention as it aims to prevent disease in potential hosts.

The last preventive measure can be taken at the level of the environment. Most of the communicable diseases have environmental factors that lead to the multiplication of the agents or the host that carries the disease (Franco, Bilal, & Diez-Roux, 2015). The alteration of these factors affects the progression of communicable diseases. An example of a disease whose control is dependent on environmental factors is malaria (Reubi, Herrick, & Brown, 2015). The factors that promote the spread of communicable diseases are removed from the environment and altered to create unfavorable conditions for the host animals and the agents (Palić, Scarfe, & Walster, 2015).

The control of communicable diseases is best done through health education (Gouda, Richardson, Beaglehole, Bonita, & Lopez, 2015). Consequently, health care workers need to know how to give health education talks and institute disease prevention measures. Health education is effective in preventing 66% of the cases of communicable diseases (Palić, Scarfe, & Walster, 2015). In addition, Reubi, Herrick, and Brown, (2015) state that the control of communicable diseases through health education is effective in preventing 58% of diseases that are transmitted by a host. It is imperative that health workers learn how to provide health education to prevent these communicable diseases. Additionally, the diseases should be prevented through measures that increase knowledge for the affected people.

The control of communicable diseases within the population requires financial resources. In fact, these conditions are expensive to treat in the event of an outbreak. Each of the control measures must be assessed to establish its cost effectiveness. Screening communicable diseases is only cost effective if the resources used are less than those of treating the condition (Reubi, Herrick, & Brown, 2015). The Tannahill model of disease promotion consists of health protection, prevention, and health education. This model is important in the prevention of communicable diseases and is used as the theoretical framework.

Data Sources

The data sources that are relevant to the control of infectious diseases include surveys and interviews (Palić, Scarfe, & Walster, 2015). These research tools are effective as they allow the collection of primary data. In addition, interviews and surveys are accurate when used in making conclusions in research. These should be applied in research to ensure that the efficiency and effectiveness of studies are increased.


Franco, M., Bilal, U., & Diez-Roux, A. V. (2015). Preventing non-communicable diseases through structural changes in urban environments. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69(6), 509-511.

Gouda, H. N., Richardson, N. C., Beaglehole, R., Bonita, R., & Lopez, A. D. (2015). Health information priorities for more effective implementation and monitoring of non-communicable disease programs in low- and middle-income countries: lessons from the Pacific. BMC Medicine, 13(1), 1-8.

McKnight, U., & Van Der Zaag, A. (2015). When debility provides a future: preventing vertical transmission of HIV. Feminist Review, 111(1), 124-139.

Palić, D., Scarfe, A. D., & Walster, C. I. (2015). A Standardized Approach for Meeting National and International Aquaculture Biosecurity Requirements for Preventing, Controlling, and Eradicating Infectious Diseases. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 27(3), 185-219.

Reubi, D., Herrick, C., & Brown, T. (2015). The politics of non-communicable diseases in the global South. Health and Place, 27(3), 185-219