The qualitative approach encompasses the overall way of thought concerning qualitative research. This approach helps in the description of the research purpose, researcher’s function, data manipulation method, and research stages. This paper uses the five qualitative research approaches to analyzing the course assigned case study as follows.
The state education department through their senior researcher wishes to examine two populations with the same educational needs. Members of the first group are ethnically defined Aboriginal and live in a rural setup. They exhibit high levels of health issues such as visual impairment, diabetes, and heart disease. Members of the second group live on family-owned farms in a rural setup. However, their farms are in the tank because of numerous years of diminishing rainfall and severe drought. All groups exhibit excessive rates of high school dropout as well as achievement scores exceeding one standard deviation lower than the mean at various grade levels.
This approach borrows a lot from the discipline of anthropology. It places emphasis on the intensive study of entire cultures. Ethnography sees cultures as any group with a unique way of life. Therefore, ethnographers will examine how culture influences one’s behavior and activities. It involves an array of techniques that support the participant observation. In the class scenario, researchers will immerse themselves in both cultures as active members. They then involve themselves in recording field notes in as much as they can (Creswell, 2007).
The senior researcher will use their field assistants to conduct this approach. They will have them live among the people for a stipulated period. The assistants collect information relevant to the study through note taking, interviewing, and direct observation. From group one, they can get both primary and secondary information concerning the role of ethnicity in valuing education. They may also need to study the relationship between geographical setup and health status and education. On the contrary, analysis of the second group collects information about the effect of drought and poverty on the value of education and performance.
This approach is highly philosophical in terms of perspective. It focuses on how subjective experiences cause individuals to interpret the world around them. Phenomenologists aim at understanding how individuals perceive the world in their personal ways. Typical examples of life-changing phenomena include drought, death, and war among others (Flick, 2009).
The primary objective of this researcher as a phenomenologist would be to mitigate the negative experiences with occurrences to education as a description. His team will identify phenomena from the two groups and attempt to relate them to training and performance. In the first case, the experience could be the cultural value attached to education, anger towards the government, and prioritization of health over education. In the second chance, the experience could be the effect of poverty and drought on school performance and value for education. The researchers will then collect primary information from individuals and formulate a description of the importance of these experiences for the entire population.
The primary p of this approach is to establish a theoretical explanation concerning phenomena. This method requires a lot of support through observation and analysis. Researchers begin by developing questions to act as research guidelines. They then collect information keeping in mind the development and identification of theoretical concepts. Also, they form provisional connections between information gathered and the concepts. The last stage involves summary and theoretical verification (Creswell, 2007).
In this case, the senior researcher will formulate questions aimed at understanding participants’ geographical settings, culture, and experiences. They then relate these issues to education and school performance as the study’s core area. Upon exploring the three questions, they will ask for detailed questions on education as a central problem. Also, they may need to determine the causal conditions and impacts in society. In the first case, the researcher collects primary information on the effects of cultural values, geographical settings, and health statuses on school performance. In the second chance, the study places much emphasis on poverty and drought.
The case study approach entails the examination of issues explored in cases within a context or setting. Case studies are secondary and primary forms of choices on areas worth analysis. They can act as strategic inquiries and methodologies that value comprehensiveness. In both cases, the researcher will explore cases on the aboriginal group over time. The team will go through in-depth data collection procedures using interviews, visual material, documents, observations, and reports. For instance, in the first case, they may select an ongoing educational program worth analysis. I would expect that the community has several educational programs given that they are a special interest group. In the second instance, the researcher may explore similar cases on the effects of drought on school attendance and performance (Luton, 2015).
Narrative inquiry takes the form of various analytical practices. It focuses on the participant’s stories to forge a research and reach a qualitative decision. Note that narratives can be methods and phenomena of analysis. The researchers will have members tell factual and mythical stories concerning their communities. In both cases, they will require ways of understanding and differentiating accurate from mythical events. The primary aim here is to connect these stories to the status quo. The procedure involves studying a sample of the population, gathering information through their stories, reporting experiences, and ordering them based on various meanings (Hartas, 2010).
In the first instance, the researcher will visit the aboriginal community and select a sample of the most experienced members. The team may also need additional information from literature and artifacts that best explain the current educational situation. In the second instance, the research team requires information on the climatic changes that resulted in the current farming situation. It would be possible to hypothesize that drought and poverty has a direct impact on school attendance and performance.
The Benefits of Individual Approaches
Ethnography provides an interesting utility bases view concerning the two groups and the place of education. This approach has the following benefits as applied to this study. First, it is an approach that connects and enables the existence of a personal relationship with study participants from both communities. Second, the approach is a source of visual and audio information thus further exploring unarticulated societal requirements. Third, ethnography examines behavior from life various aspects for individuals involved in the analysis. Fourth, the approach is superior data personification through true and memorable events. Fifth, it captures both emotions and understanding behind information collected from both groups. Finally, it will help identify the disparities between stereotypes and reality from members of both communities (Creswell, 2007).
The following are reasons why a narrative inquiry would be suitable for this research. First, the investigation helps create a sense of involvement. The researcher will establish a close relationship with involved members throughout the study to help promote community inclusiveness. Second, it engages the researcher in various aspects of both groups under analysis. Excellent narratives offer readers the sense of emotion needed for decision making. Third, narratives add a holistic approach to research. The approach best expresses the contradiction and complexities available in both groups. For instance, the second group’s complexities revolve around the effects of drought on their ability to perform and attend school. Lastly, narratives are universal in nature. They have the ability to cut across cultural boundaries and assisting members of similar communities around the world (Yardley, 2008).
This approach offers systematic, specific, and rigorous functionalities to help develop relevant ideas. These theories would in turn attempt to explain the educational disparities existing within the two communities under analysis. Second, the researcher has the ability of checking, refining and establishing ideas during field work. Indeed, they can refine their ideas in ongoing analyzes within the said communities (Luton, 2015).
This approach offers a complete and intensive scientific description of both meanings and experiences. Second, the methodology allows new findings to emerge as opposed to study-based imposition. Third, researchers employ tools designed to keep field experiences faithful to the study. Indeed, the investigator, in both cases, concentrates on procedural and mindful study activities. Finally, it helps minimize instances that presuppositions might bias the study through its many stages of research (Flick, 2009).
I would use phenomenology as an idea research approach. I believe that the methodology is suitable in both instances as a professional approach concerning utility and scientific merit. As observed, phenomenology establishes room for an intensive and contextual analysis of research questions. Though tedious, phenomenology offers a first-hand experience prior to theoretical analysis. Therefore, it would be the most appropriate method given that the researcher involved is an expert in this area.
Creswell, J. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publishers .
Flick, U. (2009). An Introduction to Qualitative Research. Irvine, CA: SAGE Publishers.
Hartas, D. (2010). Educational Research and Inquiry: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Edinburgh, UK: A&C Black.
Luton, L. (2015). Qualitative Research Approaches for Public Administration. London, UK: Routledge.
Yardley, A. (2008). Living Stories: The Role of the Researcher in the Narration of Life. Journal of Qualitative Social Research, Vol 9: No 3. Retrieved from http://nbn-resolving. de/urn: nbn: de: 0114-fqs080337