Countries all over the world are facing racial, ethnic, tribal and racial diversities. However, developed countries like America and United Kingdom have been facing these problems, since many decades as people from all over the world come here to try their luck. Sometimes, the local people do not feel comfortable dealing and facing the people from other groups, countries or religion on the basis of which, the immigrants face much difficulties. This essay articulates these racial, ethnic, tribal and gender diversities in South American countries like Argentina, Mexico and Bolivia.
The leadership in South America has put all their efforts to ensure the implementation of democracy for the citizens. After the thirty years of the third wave of the democracy, the civil societies and the policy makers have been trying to put woman forward. In countries like Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia and Cuba, the number of women has increased in politics. The best example can be Cristina Fernandez, the president of Argentina and Michelle Bachelet, the president of Chile. These two personalities can be herald as the inspiration for women across the world. This has been the best example of gender equality in politics. The Open democracy has explored many electoral systems that have given power to South American women. Argentina have women legislators of around 40%, Bolivia has 17%, Brazil 9% and Chile, 15%, Costa Rica and Cuba have the highest women legislators with 37% and 43% respectively. The percentage of women in Council has also been encouraging. There are 48% women in Costa Rica Council, 27% in Cuba, 23% in Chile, 19% in Brazil and 15% in Colombia. There is also quota fixed for women in some of South American countries (Sample, 2009).
Role of media in Gender diversity
Media is playing it role in the Gender diversity in South America. It is a common trend that women leaders get less media coverage as compared with the men. There has been a gender difference at media in both qualitative and quantitative terms. It has been a common observation that media usually highlights the women’s appearance by asking personal questions that how she is balancing her family life and career. Civil Societies are playing their own part as far as the gender differences are concerned. These feminist organizations have been fighting for the equality in politics for years now. In the past few years, the there has been a line drawn between the feminist politicians and the feminist organizations.
The women are suffering the dominance of men in almost every region of the world in economic and social life. The case is relatively difference in South American countries. As far as the workforce is concerned, there are 40% of women working in different fields of life. These women are hampered by the home responsibilities and child care however; these women are getting fewer wages for their work. They get almost 65% of the men’s average (Goodman, 2009).
There has been a very big support for women in Venezuela where the government is giving the facilities of free health, education and care for those women suffering from domestic violence. Full citizenship is given to every woman. The president of Venezuela has launched social welfare programs for women which are highly appreciated by the citizens. The 1999 constitution of Venezuela ensures political, social and economic right to all citizens. (Goodman, 2009).
In Bolivia, 70% of the population was living under the poverty line in 2005. The government gave full rights to women, indigenous people and trade unionists. The government is also trying to give the equal salaries to both men and women. Bolivia has very abortion rates; the government has therefore made abortion illegal except for the sexual assault victims. This is causing one death a day as the average abortion fee is 150 dollars which is not affordable for most of the women. Women were brought forward and the lead the Ministries of Health and Economic Development. These ministries have also strengthened the rights of women. Discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation is strictly prohibited (Goodman, 2009).
Mexican government also has given privileges and rights to woman. Abortion was an expensive treatment and most of the women were not able to do it. Supreme Court also passed a legislation to make the abortion legal. After that, thousands of legal abortions took place in Mexico. Mexican women were also suffering sexual harassment in public spaces especially in transport. In order to reduce the sexual harassment at public places, the government has also introduced the women-only buses. Paternity leave is also another measure taken by the government for the women rights (Goodman, 2009).
South American countries have people from different parts of the world forming different kinds of races. There has been a great discrimination between the people living in South American countries.
The Argentina government has put a lot of effort in eliminating racial discrimination however, the measures of institutional and legal departments are at their initial stages and still there is a need of implementation of these legislations. According to most of the sources, there are 97% of white people in Argentina, most of them and Italian and Spanish and the remaining 3% are European and Amerindian. In the past, the leadership of Argentina has tried to put a dominance of white people and to eliminate the minorities. There are many people in Argentina who are facing racial discrimination including, Jews, Arabs, indigenous, Mestizo Argentines and immigrants. The Indigenous people are struggling in the fundamental issues of culture maintenance, bilingual education, linguistic integrity and land rights. The lack of funds from makes it difficult to make adequate census data. There is a limited participation from indigenous people in development, resource management and natural resources. Social marginalization is also faced by the indigenous people. The immigrants are also facing problems when they are detained by the police and admissions in night clubs. Jews are not considered as truly Argentine due to many reasons like bombings of the Israel embassy in 1992. Anti-Semitism has also been a problem for Jews (Randall, 2011).
The difference for indigenous people flourished in Mexico and Peru in 1930s and later it was extended to other South American countries. People today are also facing the same conditions. Here people are also differentiated on the basis of cultural diversity as well. In Mexico, there are indigenous, Indians, Arabs and Jews living and facing the racism based on race. These differences have been major factors in the lives of these people. In the past African-American were taken as enslaved, sub-humans and oppressed. Still the Caucasians in Mexico are getting all the privileges. Most of the office and prestigious jobs are taken by the Mexicans and immigrants are dealing with labor work.
Ethnic & Tribal Diversities
People in South America have come from different heritages. There are native ethnic groups who have their ancestors back in thousands of years. The slaves from Africa, Portugal and Spain, immigrants, and the colonizers from Europe have particularly played a major part in the ethnic and tribal diversities Aguirre, A. (2003).
The culture of Chile has great influence from other countries and elements. It has its own traditions which are very rich in history. It is marked by the very popular Araucanian and Inca Culture. The Chile culture has a great influence of Europe and it was brought by the African slaves and colonization. The ethnic diversity in Chile is very clear and visible which reflects different forms of cuisines, Music, literature, theatre movies and other forms of life. These forms make the Chile culture very distinctive. Highly intellectual people of Chile have made the culture rich in art. There were many people who brought the culture from Paris, especially the literature. The popular literary personalities include Gabriela Mistral and Pable Neruda Aguirre, A. (2003).
The Bolivia culture is a mixture of different races but the major part is of Roman Catholicism. In Bolivia, the ethnic groups consist of Quecha, Aymara, Mestizo and White. The main centre stages of Bolivia culture are the social and family life. The socio economic factors have given rise to white people. Etiquettes forms are also seen in the business meetings in Bolivia. Indigenous people are also a major group in Bolivia and they came here before Europeans. In 2009, there were 9. 8 million people living in Bolivia in which 55% were indigenous, 30% were Mestizo and 15% were white (World fact book, 2009).
There are five main ethnic groups in Peru including the Immigrants, Judaism and Jews, Jivaroan, Indigenous and the Peruvian people. Europeans and Asians along with other groups are making the culture of Peru. The Amerindian and Hispanic traditions have great influence on Peru culture. Inca groups are also very famous and for a very long time it has exalted the fields of sculpture, architecture, and jewelry. The Spanish influences started in the period of colonization.
It is a fact that the South American countries are seriously facing the gender, racial and ethnic diversities. The problem can’t be solved at once. The behavior of people and their nature can hardly be changed. Men don’t accept the dominance of women in most of the cases. Same is the case with the people who do not accept the immigrants in their country. The governments need to play their role in cases where minorities are facing such differentiations. Programs need to be launched and awareness should be given to the people to accept the rights of minorities. Women should be given more rights especially in the state of Mexico.
Aguirre, A. (2003) Racial and Ethnic Diversity in America: A Reference Handbook. [E-book] California: Library of Congress. p. 24-28. Available through: Google Books http://books. google. com. pk/books? id= xc-YEVDhC0MC&pg= PA24&dq= ethnic+diversities+south+america&hl= en&sa= X&ei= Hf20UMTIIofKhAfikYHwCw&redir_esc= y#v= onepage&q= ethnic%20diversities%20south%20america&f= false [Accessed: 26th Nov, 2012].
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