Ethical concerns and potential barriers research paper


When it comes to public health policies, there are a number of barriers that hinder successful implementation, both at the community level as well as at the global level. These barriers come in many different forms, including sources of funding, the influence of parties with vested interests, as well as the stipulated time frames in which the polices are required to be enacted. These barriers have the potential to hamper the public health care system of any given community. It is for this reason that strategies have to be put in place to address these barriers, as well as find ways to overcome them .

The second policy in many countries will focus on social exclusion. This policy seeks to ensure that no individual should be prevented from accessing public health services based on their gender, race, sexual orientation or social status. While this may not directly incorporate health issues, by the simple fact that it addresses the underlying causes of inequalities in health makes it directly significant as far as proper public health care is concerned . A third policy that several countries have implemented includes topic-exclusive policies that include inequalities in health. In Ireland for example, there is a policy that touches on physical activities strategy. Scotland implements what is known as a sexual health strategy. These strategies zoom in on equalities in public health and then pinpoint sections that require action.

The impact of system corruption on implementation of public health policies

System corruption of policies in public health manifest in different ways, but all of them lead to failure during implementation. The first way in which systems are corrupted is the provision of inadequate funding. This is a fundamental point in the implementation of policies. The lack of funds means that health services are not accessible to the general public. This causes a breakdown in processes that lead to the availability of health services. Secondly, the lack of necessary technology to implement policies is also a form of system corruption. When employees lack skills in handling technological advancements, the implementation of these health policies grinds to a halt.

In connection to these policy implementation periods, is the pivotal role of the international law in the protection of vulnerable populations. The International Law is a set of rules by which various countries consent to abide by. Among these rules, countries are required by the law to protect vulnerable populations. Vulnerable populations by definition constitute disadvantaged persons, whether classified by age, disability, societal status or racial minority. Usually, the healthcare problems faced by these people are compounded by a myriad of social factors. As a result, the International Law seeks to enforce policies which will reduce the disparities in health care for these populations .

This is achieved by improving service delivery arrangements that are channeled towards meeting the unique needs of these people. In addition to this, the International Law is also charged with the responsibility of helping countries fulfill their mandate to protect vulnerable populations. In cases where a country fails to do so, or is unwilling to comply with the set laws, then the international community is called upon to act on the matter . Even in such a scenario, the key thing is that these vulnerable populations are catered for all through.

Acquisition and management of scarce resources in global public health

The acquisition, management and utilization of resources in public health is managed by the Public Health Finance. The fundamental role of this arm of Public Health is to ensure proper use of resources so that the health of the public is improved in an excellent manner. On a global front, the most pertinent challenge is how to mange scarce sources, especially as pertains to international monetary policy. With the ever-present threat of terrorism, nations worldwide have had to invest in surveillance of the availing of services to populations . Funding for global health has increased in leaps and bounds over the years, but with resources becoming scarce, it is imperative that they are managed well.

Resources come in the form of money, and occasionally, service from volunteers. With focus on the money, the biggest resource comes from the World Bank. Data from the world Bank has shown that aid directed at the global public health has increased more than five-fold, moving from 2. 5 billion dollars in 1990 to approximately 14 billion dollars in 2005 . In addition to the World Bank, there are programs developed by donor state governments to see to it that global public health is financed. The biggest donor state governments for global public health are the United Kingdom and the United States. The money needed is disbursed through the recipient government, and multiple government agencies such as the USAID. From these agencies, the money then trickles down to the relevant ministries.

The effect of the international monetary policy and possible interventions

The international monetary policy is a policy that monitors the transfer of large amounts of money between countries. This plays a pivotal role as far as public health is concerned, especially because donor funding is recorded in amounts running up to billions of shillings. The impact of this policy is felt worldwide, with critics citing that this policy has played a major role in disregarding the health of vulnerable populations in many countries. The reason for this is that by providing funds, the public health institutions become the victims of the government’s laxity. Laxity comes about because the government spends less on health care, stating that money has already been availed for that purpose. Consequently, it is the poor citizens who bear the full brunt of these actions .

There are several improvements that can be made as far as the impact of international monetary policy is concerned. The first of this is by holding the government accountable for the donor fund received. Part of accountability involves reviewing progress that has been made, especially at the grassroots level as this is a key indicator of how the funds are been used. The second way to do this is by setting up Global Health Partnerships, abbreviated GHP. This is an important aspect of global health because it enables the government in the allocation of resources that are obtained from both internal and external funding. Thirdly, this issue may be addressed by constantly reviewing public health policies to ensure that they are relevant for a given country, as well as to establish an association between the policies and the outcomes.

Ethical considerations in global public health

In spite of the fact that public health has always incorporated a number of ethical issues, it is only recently that this is emerging as a concrete field. The code of ethics clearly stipulates the principles that govern ethical conduct in public health. Among these principles, the key of them all is the interdependence of people. This interdependence forms the very fabric that every country and indeed every community is sewn from. Public health does not only endeavor to improve the communities’ health, but also to do so in a manner that respects the people’s rights. Another principle is that public health facilities must provide the society with relevant information required for decisions on policies. Consequently, these institutions must also get the community’s permission to implement the said policies.

On a global front, the purpose of ethical considerations is to ensure that no country is isolated, regardless of its present state of public health. While some countries may be slow to implement these policies, this does not warrant a different response from donor governments. Considering that the biggest donors are from just two countries, it is important that recipient countries make strides towards implementing policies as well as achieving set goals in making public health accessible to all. In the long run, this will improve the country’s health system, and more importantly, the well-being of its citizens.

In the USA, the ethical considerations when conducting public health research require the health professionals to obtain the scientific data and apply it with the aim of restoration and maintenance of public health while respecting the rights of the individuals. There are legal requirements such as US federal regulations that protect the individuals who participate in research. The researcher is also obligated to minimize the potential risks of the study while maximizing the benefits. These guidelines are also applicable in the international context where the Council of International Organizations of Medical Sciences. Some of the provisions of these guidelines include: obtaining informed consent from the participants, minimizing the risks and maximizing the benefits, avoiding partiality and conflict of interest. However, unlike the USA where there are federal laws that provide a framework for the ethical considerations to be implemented, the international context varies in the sense that there are countries with the legal framework on ethics on public health research and others without.

Resources that leverage policy decisions

Public health policy advocacy directs its efforts towards the regulation as well as the legislation of all bodies affiliated to the public health sector. Most public health policies are often met with stiff resistance which can emanate from the government, the industry players, community and religious institutions. Public health policy advocacy is therefore a tool to gear up support for policies on issues that are deemed as political hot buttons such as regulation of tobacco advertising or those that have been neglected such as mental health. One of the main tools of public health policy advocacy is the media. The media provides a vehicle for highlighting pertinent issues that would otherwise have remained in the background.

Ultimately, highlighting these issues could aid in shaping the policies that are implemented, lead to the enactment of new ones and pave way for funding of initiatives. From a global perspective, public health policy advocacy has been beneficial in raising awareness on the effects of tobacco and the placement of tobacco advertisements. However, it has also been met with stiff resistance from industry players and pharmaceutical companies who often stand to gain from the status quo in public health policy.

Data collection and its relevance in global public health

It is imperative to collect data for the purpose of coming up with relevant policies in line with the needs of a specific population. Data that is collected can also be used as a gauge for the milestones that have made as a result of the implementation of the policies. There are various strategies that can be applied in order to keep up with the current trends in the public policy in addition to obtaining relevant and accurate data. To begin with, it is important for the personnel concerned to undergo relevant and specialized training in order to equip them with necessary knowledge on the current methods of data collection and the correct application of these methods. Secondly, the current methods of data collection which include surveys and interviews ought to be refined in order to cover the key population health indicators that will facilitate comparisons across varying social stratifications. In addition to this, special health observatories ought to be created in order to facilitate the study of the public health matters among vulnerable groups.

Technology also comes in handy in the collection of data for public health research. The increasing adoption of electronic health records and health information systems in the USA is one of the opportunities that can be exploited public health research. Electronic health records and health information exchange systems allow for the collection of data on the health status of individuals and sharing of the information across a given region. Finally, researchers ought to be given financial incentives in order to promote research on public health policies. On the global front, the adoption of technology has also been rapid but is dependent on the economic conditions of the nation. Developed nations lead the pack given that they have the resources for research and development of tools for public health policy research. However, developing nations still lag behind as a result of the scarcity of the technological resources and the personnel.


Public health, especially on the global front is continually shaped by new challenges, making it extremely important for health providers in this sector to implement policies that are relevant to the specific community. Social determinants and ethical issues are among the top challenges that characterize provision of quality services at public health institutions. To counter this, a number of measures are put in place to ensure that populations, with special mention of vulnerable populations are well taken care of.


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