The relations between the United States of America and China have remained outstandingly smooth since late 2001, even though there are signals that the policy of U. S. toward China is at present subject to contending reappraisals. In the year 2005, officials of the State Department revealed what they termed as a new framework of policy for the association. This was one in which the United States was uncoerced to work hand and glove with a non-democratic China at the same time as urging Beijing to turn into a responsible stakeholder in the global system and U. S. In December 2006, Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson set up a U. S.-China dialogue on strategic economy with Beijing, the senior most veritable dialogue yet held with China.
Other policymakers in U. S. seem to have taken on tougher positions on matters that involved China and U. S.-China associations pertained the effect of the People’s Republic of China’s strong growth of the economy and a more assertive People’s Republic of China international relations in the global arena. An issue of increasing U. S. pertain is China’s rising global reach as well as the results that the People’s Republic of China’s growing international power has for U. S. welfare. To nourish its appetite for resources, China has been progressively signing trade accords, gas and oil contracts, scientific collaboration agreements, as well as many-sided security agreements with nations all over the world, some of which are major U. S. allies. A number of U. S. observers regard these activities as, at best challenges, and at worst, menaces, to the United States (McLean, 2012).
So as to show the implications of the rise of China to security policy of Australia, this paper addresses the issue in three parts including the historical security relations Australia has had with China. The other part covers the incentive behind the China’s rise, and the way heavy financial trade reliance, as a mechanism of security, is risky to long-term pursuits of Australia provided that China’s rise is actuated by cultural views as well as esteems. The final part analyzes the implications for Australia, considering current policies and offering recommendation in the form of improved security autonomy combined with widespread cultural commitment to further implant the Asian credentials.
Prior to the 1970s, China was looked at with fear, with primitive cold-war models dominating the debate in Australia. It was believed that leftist insurgencies in Indonesia, Malaysian, as well as Vietnam, were Chinese aggressiveness by procurator and portion of a larger ideological danger to Australia. A likewise crude security and diplomatic structure developed in response, with frontward defense deemed to be the best manner to fight the yellow peril (Huisken & Thatcher, 2007). In other words, opposing offshore kept the fight away from the immediate security surroundings (Menzies, 1970). In regard of military hardware, Australia committed in power projection capacities in the form of attack aircraft carrier, the Sydney and HMAS Melbourne, which offered Australia a widespread expeditionary availability, as sea channels control was considered as the major mechanism of security to comprise the southern communism thrust (Edwards, 1997).
The Sino-Soviet break up and raised intelligence in the area as an outcome of the Vietnam War ultimately brought out the weak nature of titles concerning Chinese expansionism (Ford, 2008). As a result, the Whitlam election held in the year 1972 indicated a major transformation in Australian mental attitude towards China, going from the alarmism of the era of Menzies towards an engagement of policy (Millar, 1977). Whitlam highly recognized the Chinese Communist Party as among the governments of China that was legitimate, creating the ground of two-sided relations that are there between the two nations today(Yang, 1997). More significantly, as both Foreign Minister and Prime Minister it is easy to understand the responsibility of casting off the obvious realist viewpoint prevalent in the security circles of US, adjusting an idealist foreign policy, which appreciated shared institutions and ideas while apprehending the crucial role of cultural sensitivities. For instance, while there was loud protest over nuclear testing by France in the Pacific, Chinese tests were received with just only quiet reprehensions (Millar, 2006).
Malcolm Fraser punctuated realism as the wider doctrine, but reserved much of Whitlam’s policy of China, contending that rising economic associations with China were more effectual than military repression of socialist nations (Viviani, 1996). Finally, though, it was Bob Hawke, who started the push into Asia, championing institutions like APEC, and considered wider cultural desegregation as necessary to the semi permanent national interest. Paul Keating went ahead with these procedures, besides engaging a central power route, regarding Australia as a possible multilateral enabler in Asia as well as approaching the thought of Australia as a Nation in Asia through enmeshment (Vaughn, 2004). In addition, these policies were reflected in the strategic review of the year 1993 as well as the defense white papers of the year 1994 that considered shared pursuits and an Asia-Pacific Australian personal identity as important to long-term security and strategic interests (Mcdougall, 2001).
As China is diversifying needs for resource by raising overseas development support as well as capital projects into regions like Africa (Pan, 2006), Australia is an appealing trading associate because of its steady supply capacities. As a result, there is no worth that exists for China to counteract this relationship, with disagreement eventually costing more than the benefits. Regrettably, mutuality has the possibility to morph into reliance. The rapid Chinese development, which is expected to free a further six hundred million persons from poverty by the year 2050, will make resource procurement a bit vital and possibly politically unstable. For instance, domestic mining sector of China currently can merely provide half of the forty-five planned minerals that are necessary to China’s growth, falling to just six by the year 2020(Wines, 2013).
Not astonishingly, Chinese companies have been drawn in to purchasing mining pursuits in Australia, with three distinguished bids lately for interests in Rio Tinto, Fortescue as well as Oz minerals. However, different from many large business deals, the participants from the Chinese side, like Chinalco, are 100% state possessed companies provoking questions of their intention and sovereignty from the Chinese Communist Party’s political ends. As Ross Garnaut disregards wider political intervention in these companies, thinking the worst result is an authority over the resources price, this bigger resource reliance on Australia has the possibility to create unsteadiness and parody should the Australia’s ability to provide resources turn out to be constricted (Gartzke, et al., 2003).
Apparently minor matters of poor domestic run mentor economic crisis could have a potential to be perceived incorrectly as strategic acts that target China. This, in turn, could increase diplomatic stresses. Economic intertwine only avoids disagreement when the war expenditure is more than that of trade. This might be difficult for Australia as the economy of China is anticipated to have a Gross Domestic Product of $38 trillion every year by 2050, while that of Australia will attain just $1. 5 trillion. As a result, security as well as foreign policy of Australia calls for exploration of the variegation of energy clients to evade against this form of exposure. In general, the steam of the market and entice of proceeds has the possibility to supersede the wider concerns over security (Gartzke, et al., 2003).
In hard power terms, China has heavily spent in a new upgrading program military, which undertakes towards the South, as well as East, with pressure on the South China Sea. As the PLA has conventionally been reliant on a large land grounded army, the new program depends heavily on unpleasant naval capacities as well as defensive systems of missile, with the protective force decreasing by 500, 000 for the past fifteen years, in spite of a duplicating of military expenditure over the past five years. From a strategic viewpoint, the organization of a blue-water navy is most difficult to Australia who has conventionally depended on US naval dominance within Southeast channels of Asian sea. More challenging is the growth of an anti-ship missile system that has the capability to obliterate a US Nimitz class aircraft carrier. Supposing the Chinese technology is confirmed, the traditional US prevention in the region would be altered, inquiring the long-term dedication of a costly and overstretched US military. Should the US draw back, it is possible that the Chinese would close the void in the sea channels of Southern Asia (Peter, 2009).
The recent security, as well as foreign policy of Australia, has not directly dealt with several of the matters described above. Particularly, Force 2030 was a document that was astonishingly aggressive and frank which returned to power balance logic in order to nourish its conclusions. It depends on projection of power, via a smaller as well as flexible amphibious attack fleet, following generation F35 assault planes, a duplicating of the long-range sub ability and developed network centric warfare ability. At its center is defense sovereignty that gets rid of Australian dependence on the partnership with US for realistic and ambassadorial reasons and a return to the Australian defense or defensive protection, as supreme to the national pursuit(Malik, 2005). A calculated ambiguity policy lowers apparent threat from Australia, as a US substitute, to China while in performance still relishing good US military relationships. Equivocalness also provides Australia with strategic as well as diplomatic flexibility, with both Washington and Beijing trying to force Australia into solid positions on the long-term obligation to ANZUS – Washington courtesy of the Armitage situation together with Beijing through providing economic carrots in exchange for the deteriorating ties of US defense(Dillon & Tkacik Jr, 2005).
The entailments of this varying geo-political environment will pose much more peremptory demand, and Australia would be helped best by a document adumbrating neutrality on the Taiwan matter while holding the ANZUS treaty principles. Within the Chinese story, the Taiwan matter is regarded as a legacy of colonial meddling, with unification the last step to eradicate the historical iniquities. As a result, siding with China on every matter concerning Taiwan, a center positioned trading associate with Australia, accounting for 2. 8% of deal, frequently in resources like iron ore would have enormous strategic and figurative reimbursement to the long-term Sino-Australian association(Dillon & Tkacik Jr, 2005).
As the wider implications for security, as well as foreign Australian policy, are regularly considered via the rubric for traditional power balance, it is cultural entanglement that will offer the largest benefits long-term. The biggest danger for Australia is misperception as a Western settlement, and has to undertake a large-scale enlightening program that tries to find cultural intertwine. Student exchange program of 100, 000 students every year is among the most precious existing method while Asian studies, as well as the Mandarin teaching, to encourage bilingualism are also influential techniques to conquer the deeper disbelieve. In spite of development, in these regions, there is no separate policy to identify the strategic, as well as security worth of cultural education. In the year 2009, the Griffith University Asia Institute issued a report targeted at developing a wider thirty year plan costing $11 billion that would expand a human infrastructure with an ability to deliver the strategic benefits of cultural involvement and Asian values education all over the education system of Australia. Such programs go with hard power aims, and in the end are cost effective equated to their hardware equivalents as once enforced, they offer security in sempiternity (Gartzke, et al., 2003).
In conclusion, the main implication of the China’s rise is how to deal with the fresh regional order, within which Australia has a benefit in resources, but a drawback as coalitions the key obstacle between true regional desegregation. Queries remain concerning whether economics supersedes culture and Australia have to engage culturally while turning into more defenses autonomous, through a strategic ambiguity policy that maximizes the relationship with US as well as China(Huntington, 1998). Doing otherwise threatens separation in an area with no natural allies, and one probable to be free of key US authority within the next century.
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