1. There seem to be three principal ways in which we can think about European cities. Briefly identify each of these and then provide an account of their strengths and possible weaknesses.
Three basic principles in which European cities can be considered are: civilization, urban system and idea of historical period.
Roman cities were left more impressive architecturally from the Greek, because of the fact that the Roman Republic lasted longer and was more intense than Greece. Ancient Rome had its own gods, and religion, but many more are believed to military and politics. They paid attention to history, science and philosophy of history. They believed that those who know the history, he cannot make the same mistake, so there is less chance of making mistakes.
Cities in Western culture are very similar. Those cities developed very similarly, although they were very different in civilization. Western Civilization is mainly influenced by Anglo-Saxons and German. These nations were part of warlike civilization that had its principal culture. In these civilizations, we can find some cultural flowering, like literature. Culture is cooler, acrimonious. Weakness is late unity into one `state`.
There is another way European cities can be seen through, like urbanism.
With the advent of Christianity in the Roman Empire stopped urbanizing. It was tortured with constant barbarian invasions and rifts in the Empire. However, before that, he managed to conquer people enslaved and create vast network of town connected by roads and sea routes – an urban infrastructure. Rome, which was founded on slavery, pursued a colonial policy and practiced imperialism. By itself, the city became a symbol of the whole civilization. Life of subordinates was sacrificed in the temples and towers. Urbanism helped people of that time but it dragged from the concept and idea that some nations had. At that moment, there was the construction of schools, squares, theaters, hospitals, etc. On the other side, Western European cities have developed rapidly.
The idea of a historical period was very different from nation to nation. There are some differences between east and west Europe in historical developments. East towns were influenced by many different cultures, from the ancient Greek, Roman, Hellenic, Slavic and Ottoman at the end. Also, in Western Europe are also operated a variety of cultures, but did not have much difference. Christianity was spread to Europe in great schism and great national unity. Ottoman rule for centuries in Eastern cities, but they left their mark especially on Balkan. In the west, Germanic and Anglo-Saxons culture is not too different. These distinct areas could be reunited soon, although this time it is very undetectable.
2. It was with the development of large-scale manufacturing industries that Europe`s population finally became urban as we think of it today. Trace the way in which this happened and where it had its most important effects over time.
In the 17th century began a new phase of world history, with specific European sign. There are preparing phase of discovery, a new spirit of mastering nature and rational approach to social problems, and it is opposed to the previous period, a relatively customary social and political structures and the coexistence of individual self-enclosed cultural circles – stand out as a whole with their aspirations for revolutionary changes and aspirations Europe is at a political and civilizational master plan of the world. The political revolution that began separating the North American colonies from British populated metropolis and their constitution in a liberal – democratic federal state, reached its climax in the great French revolution is shaking up the 19 century most of the European countries.
In this sense, the global history of Europe in the 20th completed century when the world is all thanks to the wider adoption of technical – scientific instruments and global ideologies stemming from the European spirit and the accelerating process of socially-owned, from political dependence on Europe.
England was the first country that has made the industrial revolution. In England worked through the first machines in the industry and built the first factories. In this way, the production of various kinds of goods increased tremendously.
Later, the changes that have occurred in human life and production began to happen in the second half of the 18th century were really great, caused by the invention of the steam engine. Thanks to it, production of individual products displaces the industrial production of many products. More and more people migrated to the cities in which they were built factories, increasing the number of layers of industrial workers. Many villages were improved in countryside. For example Manchester: after becoming a major center for cotton and textile industry, it took for Manchester only 20 years to become city. Cities have expanded rapidly, and many people moved to the factory land in order to reduce the use of land. Women were given their place in society with the advent of the industrial revolution. The consequences of these epochal papers were outstanding. Under the influence of a new mode of production is fundamentally changed the lives of all other social strata. These changes are not confined to the UK, the process of industrialization soon engulfed many countries of Western Europe. The changes that were then not even conceived until today ended, because in many backward countries in all regions of the globe are predicted industrialization, while in some it is now in progress. Britain is in the time of Queen Victoria proudly called themselves an empire where the sun never sets. UK still has many advantages due to its former strength. The UK is still associated with the Bank of Hong Kong, due to the opium wars in XIX century.
3. Take one of the challenges facing European cities that were examined in class, describe its main parameters, and discuss the barriers to its ready resolution.
Many European cities have its problems, but city with the biggest problem is definitely Venice. Venice is considered a world wonder that attracts over 17 million tourists. However, the city on the water is struggling to stay above water.
The problem of flooding of Venice has long been known. Every year, flood water is flooding legendary street labyrinths collapsing architectural jewels such as St. Mark’s Square. With endangered architecture and a large number of young people who move to the mainland, Venice became a dying relic.
Problem tidal wave, therefore, is not the only problem. With a dwindling population and a growing influx of tourists, Venice has a problem to accommodate all these people. Over 60, 000 people per day visit the Italian city which is almost twice the number of the population who live in it.
Although Italy is on the brink of bankruptcy, she was able to somehow pay a controversial MOSE project, which should solve the problem of flooding. Completion of the project worth over billion dollars expected in 2014th year aims to stop the tide of invasion into the city. No longer dares to think about whether this idea will succeed because investments made astronomic.
Scientists in Italy have estimated that the decay of one to two millimeters per year is not a significant drop, and report problems to flood more frequently in the water.
” One millimeter is nothing compared to the problem of flooding,” said Pietro Teatini, a researcher from the University of Padua.
Drama preservation of Venice above water was 34 years ago, the 4th November, 1966th, when there was a major flood that threatened to sink the entire city. Since then he has spent hundreds of billions of lire to projects and studies that are supposed to find a solution to save the unique city that seems to emerge from the sea.
In one of them, MOSE project, it is envisaged that Venice is ” built” 10 cm. Scientists say that the model works well in theory, but its practical implementation requires more research. The flood protection system should, as planned, to be completed by 2014th year.
Despite this sad fact, Venice has always been a city on the verge of collapse. Attacked by armies and conquered throughout history for centuries and the water is undermining the foundations.
The gates are often referred to as Moses, Moses or the gates, a name that comes from an experimental prototype called the Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanica. Laguna and more touch on three very tight places. Protective barriers would have to be a total of 1600 meters wide, would be made up of 78 moving parts.
In the case of a tidal wave coming from one meter to the air pressure spewed water out of the door because it would be easy to lift. Each segment alone would be able to withstand the tidal wave of three meters.
4. London is now often described as a quintessential global city. Why does this make sense? What is it about London`s past that prepared it for its recent role?
London was the largest city in the world from around the 1831st to 1925st growing traffic congestion led to the first local urban rail network in the world. Metropolitan Board of Works who oversaw infrastructure expansion, 1889. Council replaced the county of London (London County Council), first elected city government. Blitz and other bombing by the German Luftwaffe during World War II killed over 30, 000 citizens of London and destroyed numerous homes and other buildings throughout the city. Immediately after the war, the Olympic Games 1948th were held at the original Wimble Stadium, at a time when the city was still recovering from the war. In 1951st South London (South Bank) held the Festival of Britain fair. Great smog 1952nd brought in 1956th the Clean Air Act (Clean Air Act), which was finished off by coal smog, which is a notorious London. From the 1950’s onwards in London settled many immigrants, largely from Commonwealth countries as Jamaica, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, which has made London one of the most diverse cities in Europe. In the sixteenth century comes to social problems in cities. Number of the population has grown rapidly. London had 1500 inhabitants; the population by the end of the century grew to 200, 000. There was not enough food. Living conditions have deteriorated, unemployment was rising, and with it the misery.
Starting in the mid 1960`s, London became the world center of youth culture, which was particularly prominent Swinging London subculture associated with Carnaby Street. The role of trendsetters again revived the punk era. 1965th London’s administrative boundaries were extended in order to include growing urban areas, and have established a new Council of the Great London (Greater London Council). During the conflict in Northern Ireland (The Troubles) from the late 1960s onwards, London has been the target of terrorist attacks Provisional IRA. Racial inequality was highlighted rebellion in Brixton 1981st the population of the Great London has been declining steadily for decades after World War II, the estimated peak of 8. 6 million in 1939 to around 6. 8 million in the 1980s. The main ports of London moved downstream to Felixstowe are and Tilbury, while London’s docks area has become the focus of restoration. Dam Thames Barrier was completed in the 1980s to defend London from tidal North Sea. Great London Council was abolished in 1986th, which left London as the only large metropolis in the world without a central administration. 2000, overall the city government was restored, with the establishment of the Great London (Greater London Authority). Today, London is a blend of tradition and modern center of world events. The most interesting is the art center on the south bank of the Thames, South Bank, with theaters, galleries and concert halls, where you can see the best theater performances, the latest movies and hear the best music.
” Flood barriers: Saving Venice | The Economist.” The Economist – World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance. N. p., n. d. Web. 11 Mar. 2013.
” Industrialisation.” Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N. p., n. d. Web. 11 Mar. 2013.