1. Describe the musical responses of a child in the sensorimotor stage of development.
Children learn language during early stages simply by listening. From that they are able to extract complex grammar rules aned syntaxes intuitively. It is the same for music, when children are young they begin to develop a musical vocabulary. Children have been especially understanding to rhythms during this stage as they begin to define their own tempo with “ rhythm babble”
2. What is the most notable cognition characteristic of the formal operations stage of development?
This stage begins around seven and last till about eleven. Around this age children are able to begin to gain the ability to think logically about concrete things.
3. List Merriam’s 10 functions of music in society.
Emotional Expression, Aesthetic Enjoyment, Entertainment, Communication, Symbol Representations, Physical Response, Enforcing Conformity to Social Norms, Validation of Social Institutions and Religious Rituals, Contribution to the Continuity and Stability of Culture, Contribution to the Integration of Society,
4. Is music a universal language? Explain your answer?
Yes, there are no cultures on earth in which music does not share a part. Musical language, like verbal language, is something innate to human culture and something that exists everywhere people are. Harmonies and chords have their own modal formations so that two people who do not speak the same language but have a musical vocabulary could meet and could communicate on a level I would argue that is even deeper than language.
5. The three components of the AAIDD’s definition of intellectual disabilities include?
a) Significant limitations in intellectual functioning
b) Behavior restrictions in adapting to ecological demands
C) Identification/diagnosis prior to age 18 (Luckasson et al., 2002)
6. List five causes of intellectual disabilities.
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7. Why is music therapy an effective strategy to helping persons with mild intellectual disabilities?
Because there is still a wide range of communication frequencies in which it can benefit them. They are still plugged into human communication and music has been shown to enhance their life by giving them another means of communication with the world.
8. List three important music therapy goals developed for persons with intellectual disabilities.
1. To enhance their life
2. To make progress in better communication in the outside world
3. To not be a band aid but to lead to a permanent enhancement in well being.
9. Why does an assessment need to be completed before treatment?
10. When should a therapist terminate treatment?
When it’s been used for the length of time in which research shows it to be impactful but it has not had an impact on the patient.
11. Name four types of treatment teams There are behavior, biomedical, developmental, educational, humanistic, adaptive music instruction, and other models.
12. Describe the elements of a treatment plan. Music therapists are there to be able to meet clients where they are at and allow them to grow from there. A treatment plan involves an initial assessment and then a goal. 14. What are the three key areas of functioning in which individuals with ASD differ from their peers?
They do not communicate or relate in the same way as their peers. They may also may not have the ability to empathize as others do. To them, their world is often a private world and other people are part of that, rather than other people being part of the same world. 15. Why is autism considered a spectrum disorder?
Because there are different ranges of having it. Some are functional, and others are non-functioning individuals, and the rest fall somewhere in between. 16. How can functional academic skills be taught in a music therapy session? By showing a patient a way to accomplish them that fits with their functionality rather than forcing them to adhere to the way things are generally taught in a formal academic setting. 17. How might music therapy be used as a reinforcer for a student with ASD?
It rewards them with music for doing tasks that are out of their comfort zone but necessary for their functioning.