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Due Archaeology Discussion PART 150, 000 years after the first appearance of Modern Humans they were already spreading and populating the majority of the Old World, including Europe and Asia. Modern archaeological and anthropological scholars argue that there are problems with the idea that all modern humanity began in Africa alone, simply, is not supported by modern evidence. The Replacement Model seems a more realistic explanation. The Replacement Model presents the idea that evolution of different hominid species occurred, both, in Africa, throughout Europe, and parts of Asia. The superior stock from Africa essentially dominated these other species. Supporters of the Replacement Model do not believe that interbreeding was common or likely and would not be relevant on an evolutionary level (Clarke, 1-2).
There is no perfect theory. The only disagreement that I have with this theory is that it so staunchly argues that interbreeding is not a factor in the origins of modern humans and their populating of the planet. I think that may be a bit short sited. This would be entirely believable if the distinction between the African stock was vastly superior to the products of evolution that has occurred in Europe and Asia. However, if there were enough similarities and interaction it seems inevitable that inbreeding would most certainly occur. This favors the Partial Replacement Theory (Clarke 2-3). However, either perspective is stronger than the idea that all human developed only in Africa and is solely the result of mass migration.
Clarke , Cynthia. ” The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans.” Anthropology/Archaeology. (2014): 1-5. Web. 25 Jul. 2014. .
Most people have been taught that Neanderthals were the quintessential “ cave-man.” Slow moving, slower thinking, and died off due to an inability to adapt, allowing Homo sapiens to become the ultimate dominant species of Hominid. However, modern researchers are changing that perspective and putting the myth to rest that Neanderthals were slow-witted and little or no real interaction with the African Modern humans migrating into Europe and Asia. Recently remains were discovered that confirm that inbreeding between did occur between Homo sapiens and Neanderthal. This lends credence to the theory that Partial Replacement took place. Neanderthal is presently being found in the modern populations of human beings throughout Asia and Europe at a ratio of %1to %4 presences of Neanderthal ancestry (Viegas 1).
The skeletal remains found date back 30, 000 to 40, 000 years ago; they belong to an individual who shows cranial signs of inherited traits of their mixed heritage. For example, the lower jaw is neither jutting as in modern humans nor was it non-existent, which is representative of the Neanderthal. Based on genetic research the individuals mitochondrial DNA, those genes passed from mother to child, is definitely Neanderthal. In fact they are certain that the offspring’s mother was Neanderthal and the father was a Modern human. This research into the Neanderthal connection has shown that Neanderthals were much more advanced and developed culturally than previously thought. They had a culture all of their own (Viegas 1). This has led even greater credence to the Partial Replacement theory. It supports that while the Neanderthals and Homo sapiens interacted, interbred, and intercommunicated, which eventually lead to the Neanderthal species being bred out in favor of modern traits.
Viegas, Jennifer. ” First Love Child of Human, Neanderthal Found.” Discovery Magazine. 27 Mar 2013: 1. Web. 25 Jul. 2014. .