Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter [ 2 ] provides a description of the undertaking and an overview of surveies related to laminated force per unit area vas. It surveys the literature covering with the design and research work on different composite stuffs. It besides reviews the laminate analysis in the visible radiation of classicalfailuretheories. Furthermore it tends to cover the impact of multilayered subdivisions of heterogenous stuff along with the fibre orientation on thestressdistribution of force per unit area vas. It besides contain process to plan composite force per unit area vas in the visible radiation of old findings in the existing literature. This chapter besides include the methodological analysis to continue on the undertaking and behavior analysis utilizing Matlab a clip tested package.
The usage of metal based CNG cylinders are popularly turning with heightening fatal hazards and menaces manifolds. In Pakistan, the usage of metal based CNG cylinder are turning really fast and therefore adding to multifaceted inadvertent hazards due to low quality criterion cylinders and their mishandling. The grounds behind these effects are use of low quality dyer’s rocket and expired kits. A careful estimation shows that out of 10 metal CNG cylinders four are at hazard due to chance of blast and fatal accidents in private and public conveyance vehicles. These in fact are going beginning of serious menaces to human life and cultivate the demand to look into and convey frontward an alternate safe solution. For this intent, metal CNG cylinders may necessitate to be replaced and composite or other stuffs may be the best solution. We will research the chance of composite CNG cylinder under this undertaking.
This predominating state of affairs in Pakistan emphasiss on the demand to look into the failing of metal based CNG cylinder and come up with an alternate feasible solution non merely stronger plenty than metal based CNG cylinders but besides cut down the hazard of fatal accidents and life menaces to the consumer. In other words, there is a demand to carry on empirical probe that help us to convey and alternate safe and strong beginning of CNG cylinder fabrication based on composite or other stuffs and compare its viability and strength with the bing metal based CNG cylinder. This survey seek to bridge bing spread in CNG cylinder fabrication and propose some feasible solution to get the better of by taking the restraints with an purpose to hold a feasible alternate solution of high strength, environmental friendly composite CNG cylinder. The undertaking attempt to supply a hazard free competitory merchandise. In thisrespect, we considered Carbon/Epoxy for the most optimized consequences with the high facet of strength and high weight decrease of CNG cylinder. For farther betterment optimisation of wall thickness and fiber orientation is besides be done. We will prove each bed of laminated force per unit area vas with the application of Tsai-Hill failure standards. This application will surely assist us to plan a hazard free composite CNG cylinder. The survey will continue with the specific aim enlisted in to following subdivision.
Aims of the survey
The chief aim of this survey is to look into the failings of bing metal based CNG cylinder and convey up an alternate feasible solution non merely stronger plenty than metal based CNG cylinders but besides cut down the hazard of fatal accidents and life menaces to the consumer. For this intent, we will analyze the emphasis distribution produced in thin wall metal based CNG cylinder in the visible radiation of different finite component analysis packages and place the weak parts. Hoop and longitudinal emphasiss will be calculated by theoretical analysis of thin wall metal cylinder. Keeping in position the penetration obtained from theoretical and finite component analysis mistake computation will be done. As we have standardized standards, the FEA package with the least mistake will be selected for farther proceeding.
We will plan a laminated CNG cylinder on the same specification as of bing metal CNG cylinder. We will further optimise the design by optimisation of angle and thickness of laminated force per unit area vas. The Matlab codification will be generated for laminate analysis of composite CNG cylinder. Subsequently on the Matlab computation will be verified by utilizing ANSYS Workbench 15.
The consequences of our design for composite CNG cylinder will be justified from bing literature at domestic ( if any ) and international degree.
To gauge and analyse the consequence of fibre orientation on stress distribution of composite CNG cylinder, analysis will be run on different fibre angle orientation. Before continuing on the undertaking in systematic mode we will wish to seek penetration from bing literature in the force per unit area vas context.
General Overview of Literature
The history of semisynthetic composite stuff is spread over more than 6000 old ages. The earliest semisynthetic composite stuffs were straw and clay combined to organize bricks for edifice building. Fiber-reinforced composite stuffs besides additions popularity ( despite their by and large high cost ) in high-performance merchandises that needs to be lightweight yet strong plenty to take rough lading conditions ( Shaffer, 1993 ) .
After the gradual development in the field of complexs over clip it was 2006 when a fiber-reinforced complex was introduced for residential every bit good as commercial usage as a non-corrosive option to steel ( Waterman, 2007 ) .
A farther development was observed in 2007 wherein a military vehicle named “ Humvee ” , the first all-composite military vehicle, was introduced by TPI Composites Inc and Armor Holdings Inc. It was improved in 2008 by uniting C fibre and Kevlar ( five times stronger than steel ) with enhanced thermoset rosins to do military theodolite instances by ECS Composites making 30-percent igniter instances with high strength ( Pamela J, 2009 ) . This lead to a systematic research on the topic affair which is reviewed in the following subdivision.
General Overview of composite force per unit area vas
As stated in the old bomber subdivision that systematic research work on composite force per unit area vass was initiated late that is i. e. In first decennary of the new millenary ( Sheffer, 1993 ; Waterman, 2007 ; Pamela J, 2009 ; and Rayapuri Ashok and Ranjith Kumar, 2013 ) .
Therefore there is utmost vestry of cognition on composite force per unit area vas. To the best of our cognition, there are merely a few surveies are available in this country but research work associating to Pakistan is farther pantie or non bing.
Wang Yingjun ( 2010 ) conducted a survey in Japan and a finite component theoretical account of C fibre reinforced polymer ( CFRP ) force per unit area vas with aluminium line drive is established by ANSYS finite component package. The component utilized in the survey was Shell-99 ( 4 node ) . The outer fibril lesion fibres were overwrapped by both hoop twist and coiling twist methods. He found that safety was critical because of high working force per unit area which was more than 35MPa. He conducted the inactive analysis of the vas. The burst force per unit area was predicted farther. He found when interior force per unit area increased up to 65MPa, the maximal tensile emphasis of the first CFRP ply reached rupture strength of CFRP. So the force per unit area 65MPa was regarded as the explosion force per unit area.
Rayapuri Ashok and Ranjith Kumar ( 2013 ) in their survey discussed design and analysis of multilayer high force per unit area composite vass along with their advantages over single-channel block vas. Using Abaqus FEA package for burst force per unit area analysis of CFRP composite force per unit area vass for assorted fiber orientation angles, they calculated stress concentration on dish-shaped part. They used element type Solid-46 ( 8 node ) and optimized the fibre angle orientation by analysing the fibre helically for assorted orientations such as [ +25°/-25° ] s, [ +35°/-35° ] s, [ +45°/-45° ] s, [ +55°/-55° ] s, [ +65°/-65° ] s, and [ +75°/-75° ] s. For this intent they utilized burst force per unit area of 35MPa along with rules specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers ( A. S. M. E ) Sec VIII Division 1. The survey found a per centum economy in stuff of 28. 48 % utilizing multilayered composite vass in the topographic point of solid walled vas of SA515 Grade 70 steel. They furthered their probe and used multilayered CFRP stuff and saved 91. 62 % stuff when compared to SA515 Grade 70 steel stuff vass. The explosion force per unit areas for assorted fiber orientations are predicted utilizing the Tsai-Wu failure standards. The ± 25° fiber orientation angle is obtained as the optimal fibre orientation angle for the composite force per unit area vas subjected to high internal force per unit area burden.
B. Vijay Kiran ( 2012 ) developed an analytical theoretical account for anticipation of optimal fiber orientations for given bed thicknesses. He selected fiber volume fraction= 0. 65 and= 0. 35 which was acceptable to the present composite force per unit area vas working at 3MPa internal force per unit area. He found optimal value of fiber orientation which was ±55° for glass epoxy and ±65° angle for C fibre. From the finite component analysis study the maximal emphasis obtained in each lamina ( for ±55, ±65 degrees weaving angle ) was less than the allowable on the job strength.
The factor of Safety 3 was taken for the fibre reinforced composite stuff to get the better of material design and fabrication defects. The mean critical buckling force per unit area was obtained from finite element analysis study was 4. 0684N/mm 2 , which was more than the maximal on the job force per unit area 3N/mm 2 . Comparison of stiffened and unstiffened complex shell was done by both theoretically and analytically techniques and he found that the stiffened cylinder has more clasping opposition than that of the unstiffened one.
Javad Marzbanrad ( 2013 ) investigated the design and analysis of high force per unit area composite vass based on “ unit burden method ” along with complete structural analysis and rating of weariness life-time were performed utilizing finite element commercial codification ABAQUS. He selected fiber volume fraction= 0. 75 and= 0. 25 and element Shell-99 ( 8 node ) . He found that the weariness life-time of vas depends on the finite component mesh size, cleft denseness and ratio in an component.
K. M. Pandey ( 2014 ) investigated the clasping behaviour of reasonably thin walled filament-wound carbon–epoxy cylinders subjected to hydrostatic force per unit area. A entire 9 figure of composite laminates were considered for finite component analysis. He used Finite component package ANSYS 14. 0 and three finite component plan ACOS win, MSC/NASTRAN and MSC/MARC to formalize the consequences. He besides used Element 281 ( 8 node ) to make the finite component theoretical account. The ANSYS shell component theoretical account predicted the buckling force per unit area with 1. 5 % divergence from the other three finite component consequences.
We in our survey and convey for a alternate solution will analyze the emphasis distribution produced in thin wall metal based CNG cylinder in the visible radiation of different finite component analysis packages and place the weak parts. Hoop and longitudinal emphasiss will be calculated by theoretical analysis of thin wall metal cylinder. Theoretical analysis of bing metal CNG cylinder will besides be conducted in the visible radiation of insight addition from work by P. Beer and Johnson ( 2006 ) .
The demand for theoretical analysis emerged as to supply a base for design of composite CNG cylinder. Keeping in position the penetration obtained from theoretical and finite component analysis mistake computation will be done. As we have standard standards the FEA package with the least mistake will be selected for farther proceeding. We will plan a laminated CNG cylinder on the same specification as of bing metal CNG cylinder. We will further optimise the design by optimisation of angle and thickness of laminated force per unit area vas. The Matlab codification will be generated for laminate analysis of composite CNG cylinder. The Matlab computation will be verified by utilizing ANSYS Workbench 15. The consequences of our design for composite CNG cylinder will be justified from bing literature at domestic and international degree. To gauge and analyse the consequence of fibre orientation on stress distribution of composite CNG cylinder, analysis will be run on different fibre angle orientation.
Three is a scarceness of literature in this the country of composite stuffs. Most of the literature available on composite force per unit area vas is about optimisation of fiber orientation while major part of it is about Glass fiber wherein the research workers identified the emphasis distribution utilizing different fiber orientation. These surveies found the consequence curtailing weight decrease by about 29 % ( K. M. Pandey, 2014 ; Javad Marzbanrad, 2013 ; and Rayapuri Ashok, 2013 ) .
For analysis purpose many of research workers benefited from ANSYS as the finite component analysis package because this to them provides more user friendly interface and extremely elaborate analysis compatibility. They selected Shell-99 and Solid-46 ( 8 node ) as component for more optimized consequences. Their most important findings were that Carbon/Epoxy had provided the highest strength consequences with a comparatively high weight decrease. They conducted their probe at 54. 7° because they presume that it could supply the most optimized consequences but it may non be allowable practically as referred by B. Vijay Kiran ( 2012 ) .
They have besides selected 4 and 8 node elements wherein 16 node component is preferred because of its more precise consequences. The other surveies under reappraisal besides used maximal shear emphasis theory while on the other manus Tsai-Hill failure theory provide more better consequences in multilayered laminate analysis. These surveies besides used Abaqus package which may give less attested consequences when compared to analysis through ANSYS Workbench. We in our survey attempt to get the better of this spread and convey a feasible alternate solution of high strength, environmental friendly composite CNG cylinder. We have utilized Matlab for numerical analysis of laminated force per unit area vas. The merchandise will travel through a battery of trial in order to conform its genuineness and cogency.