They cover the range of subjects for which the Home Secretary has responsibility. Other publications produced by the Research, Development and Statistics Directorate include Findings, Statistical Bulletins and Statistical Papers. The Research, Development and Statistics Directorate REDS Is part of the Home Office. The Home Office’s purpose Is to build a safe, Just and tolerant society in which the rights and responsibilities of Individuals, families and communities are properly balanced and the protection and security of the public are maintained.
REDS is also part of National Statistics (NSA).
One of the aims of NSA is to inform Parliament and the citizen about the state of the nation and provide a window n the work and performance of government, allowing the impact of government policies and actions to be assessed. Therefore – Research Development and Statistics Directorate exists to Improve policy making, decision taking and practice In support of the Home Office purpose and aims, to provide the public and Parliament with information necessary for informed debate and to publish information for future use.
First published 2005 Crown copyright 2005 ISBN SINS 1 84473 581 . 8 0072 6435 Foreword I Nils study represents a major advance In our Knowledge auto c V No previous search has examined in such detail the issues faced in ensuring effective operation of CATV systems. The authors have undertaken a painstaking analysis of the effectiveness of systems, both with respect to the impact on crime as recorded by the police and wider measures based on visitation rates, fear of crime and other information collected via local surveys.
The authors have demonstrated that while CATV can be a powerful tool in combating crime, it has to be recognized that the contexts in which CATV systems operate are very variable, as are the systems themselves.
CATV can appear to be a simple measure to implement, but this is far from being the case in reality. This report, together with its associated reports, provides invaluable information to assist in developing the full potential of CATV systems.
Dry Chris Shakers Programmer Director Research, Development and Statistics Home Office Crime Reduction and Community Safety Group Acknowledgements There are a lot of people who in different ways have contributed to this research. We would particularly like to thank all those individuals from the projects under evaluation for their cooperation. Many individuals from a wide array of agencies gave a lot of time and although we cannot name them we do recognize the enormous contribution that collectively they made.
Without them this project would not have been possible.
We would also like to thank the Home Office team for their support. Initially Barry Webb, Secondly Brandon, Morris Blockhouses, Tom Levelly, Amanda Martin and Ian Short were involved, and latterly Peter Grove and Chris Shakers who were very supportive and offered very good advice and made an important contribution to this work. We would like to thank all those who at various points revered on the project, especially Kate Painter not least for her assistance in getting started, but also to Garage Gerard, Colic Knowles, Colic Phillips, Ian Weasels and Garry Parking.
Martin Gill is Director of Perpetuity Research & Consultancy International (PRI) and a Professor of Criminology at the University of Leister.
He was the Director of the CATV evaluation and is contactable on m.[email protected]Com. Angela Springs was the Project Manager and Research officer in the Department of Criminology at the University of Leister for the duration of the study. All the following worked in a variety of research roles during the period of the evaluation and made a major contribution to the project: Jean Allen Xavier Organize Jane Bryan Martin Hemming
Patricia Jasmine Deana Kara Jonathan Kilowatt Ross Little Poly Smith Daniel Swain Sam Hapless Executive summary Aims and Methods This report evaluates 13 Closed Circuit Television Camera (CATV) projects (comprising 14 separate systems) implemented in a range of contexts, including town centre, city centre, car parks, hospitals and residential areas. The projects were funded under Phase 2 of the Home Office CATV Initiative.
The research covered a number of different aspects: Police recorded crime statistics were used to measure changes in levels of crime in he intervention areas and in comparable control areas before and after the CATV systems were installed. Where appropriate, changes in crime patterns in the surrounding areas were also assessed, in order to measure any displacement or diffusion of benefit effects. Public attitude surveys were conducted in 12 areas to assess changes in public perceptions of CATV in the intervention areas and comparable control areas before and after the installation of CATV.
These included residential in-home surveys and town/city centre in-street surveys. R e s e a archers identified other crime reduction initiatives operating within the intervention and control areas, so that it could be assessed to what extent these offered alternative explanations Tort changes In crime levels. International was gatherer on ten process which the project designers chose CATV, and account was taken of the extent to which CATV was evaluated as a means of addressing local problems.
The technical specification and design as well as the process of implementing and installing the CATV systems were examined. Control room operations, including working relationships with external agencies such as the police, and control room management were assessed. The economic impact of each CATV system was assessed. The main objective of the crime data analysis was to measure the impact of the CATV projects on crime and fear of crime. For the analysis a quasi-experimental model was adopted and the aim was as far as possible to achieve Level 3 of the Maryland Scientific Methods Scale (Sherman et al.
002). This requires a measurement of change in the incidence of crime b e of re and after the installation of CATV in both an inter venation area (re f e red to henceforward as the target area’), and a control area. Furthermore, the analysis aimed to measure change for a significant length of time following implementation. The crime data analysis suffered, however, from implementation delays and failures, the lack of a suitable control, and limited access to data, which in some cases rendered it less robust than planned.
Impact on crime All the systems had the broad objective of reducing crime. Out of the 13 systems evaluated six showed a relatively substantial reduction in crime in the target area compared with the control area, but only two showed a statistically significant deduction relative to the control, and in one of these cases the change could be explained by the presence of confounding variables.
Crime increased in seven areas but this could not be attributed to CATV.
The findings in these seven areas were Inconclusive as a range AT variables could account Tort ten changes In crime levels, including fluctuations in crime rates caused by seasonal, divisional and national trends and additional initiatives. A number of quantifiable aspects of systems, which could have explained the impact measured were investigated and it was found that retain types of system were more effective than others: Systems installed in a mixed category of areas (e. G. AR parks, a hospital and various other areas covered by one system) displayed the most encouraging results in terms of reduction in crime, particularly in car parks.
Town centre and residential systems showed varied results, with crime going down in some areas and up in others. Residential redeployed schemes appeared to show no long-term reduction in crime levels. However, the cameras were dealing with short-term problems, which require sensitive measures to detect the impact of the cameras. No police recorded crime statistics were available for Weakest Estate, hence crime levels were analyses for 13 of the 14 systems.
Certain types of offence were affected more than others: Impulsive crimes (e. G.
Alcohol-related crimes) were less likely to be reduced than premeditated crime (e. G. Theft of motor vehicles). Violence against the person rose and theft of motor vehicles fell in the target areas in accordance with national trends in recorded crime. Some system attributes had more effect than others: Camera coverage was positively correlated (r = 0. 51) to effect size.
However, this was not statistically significant (p