Chapter 3: General attitudes predict general behavior 3. Accessibility Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Attitudes: Evaluative Statements (fav. or unfav) about objects, people or events “ I like my job” – Attitude about my job Components of Attitude: 1. Cognitive I am overloaded A description of or belief in the way things are Opinion / belief segment 2. Affective I hate this job More critical part of attitude Emotional or feeling segment of the attitude 3. Behavioral I am looking for another job Intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something Very interdependent components.
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Esp Cognition and Affect 2. Major Job Attitudes 1. Job Satisfaction Positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics Job Involvement Degree to which people identify psychologically with their job+ consider perceived performance level as self-worth Psychological Empowerment – employee’s belief in the degree to which he/she is influencing the workenvironment, their competence, meaningfulness of job and perceived autonomy Memory-easy access-predicts our behavior We remember attitudes we express often 4. Presence of social pressures
Non Smoker working in Tobacco factory 5. Direct Experience with the attitude A-B bond will be much stronger with direct personal exp Eg: Asking college students about work pressure would not give substantial results Leon Festinger Conventional thought: Behavior is always assumed to follow from attitude Challenged by Leon Festinger – Attitudes follow behavior (eg: using a car you despised because you are forces to changes your attitude about the car) High amounts of JI and PE leads to reduced absences and lower turnover rates 3. Organizational Commitment 3 separate dimensions: a. b. . Affective Continuance Normative Cognitive Dissonance When an individual faces incompatibility across components of attitude or between attitude and behavior or attitudes themselves The normal human tendency is to reduce this incompatibility and seek a stable state (minimum of dissonance*) *dissonance – means incongruity/disagreement Affective • Emotional Attachment to Organzn (ALLEGIANCE) • Perceived economic value of continuing with the Organzn • Obligation to remain due to moral/ethical reasons OBLIGATION People want to have a consistency between their attitudes and behavior. ways employed: 1. Change their attitude / behavior Continuance 2. Develop a rationale for the discrepancy Eg: Tobacco Workers who do not smoke Desire to reduce Dissonance depends on: 1. 2. 3. Importance Influence Rewards Normative POS: Perceived Organization Support Degree to which employees believe that the • • Org. values their contribution and cares about their well being Moderating Variables of attitudes relations: 1. Importance of the Attitude Important attitudes reflect our fundamental values Show a strong relation to behavior 2. Correspondence to behavior Employee Engagement:
Relatively new concept Involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for work Engaged employees have a deep commitment, whereas disengaged employees put only time and no energy/attention to work Specific attitudes predict specific behavior Namith Najeeb – PGP -15 -028 Job Satisfaction Positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics 2 approaches to measuring JS: 1. Single Global Rating 1 2 3 4 5 Outcomes of Satisfaction & Dissatisfaction Job Satisfaction & Job Performance Happy Workers > Perform better Not a myth anymore, has been proved empirically Org . ith more satisfied employees perform better Job Satisfaction & OCB Organizational Citizenship Behavior Satisfied talk +ve about the company, help others and do more Fairness perception – giving back the goodness they received Job Satisfaction & Customer Satisfaction Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction andloyaltyEmployee morale goes down – sales effected All things considered how satisfied are you with your job? Likert Scale: 2. Summation of Job Facets More sophisticated Identifies key elements in a job: Nature of job, supervision, present pay, promotion opportunities, co-worker relations
Persons with positive core self-evaluations (who believe in inner worth and basic competence) are more satisfied than people with negative core self-evaluations Job Satisfaction & Absenteeism More sick leave benefits encourage even satisfied employees to take leave of absence When several job opportunities are available dissatisfied employees have a higher absenteeism Job Satisfaction & Turnover* *Turnover-how long employees tend to stay Impact of Satisfied & Dissatisfied Workers at the Workplace Consequences of Dissatisfaction: Exit – Voice – Loyalty – Neglect Model (EVLN Model) Active
More stronger than relation between JS and absenteeism When more emp. opport. are available turnover increases with Job Dissatisfaction Employees with high human capital tend to turnover due to more perceived opportunities Job Satisfaction & Workplace Deviance Exit Destructive Neglect Voice Constructive Loyalty Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction and Antagonistic relations with co-workers can cause these undesirable behaviors: Unionization attempts, substance abuse, stealing at work, undue socializing, tardinessThis is called Deviant Behavior in the Workplace / Counterproductive Behavior / Employee Withdrawal Passive
Exit: Looking to leave the Organization – resign/new position Voice: Actively & constructively attempt to improve conditions Suggests improvements, discusses prob with seniors Loyalty: Passively but optimistically waiting for improvements Speak up for the orgnzn in the face of criticism Trusting the orgnzn to “ Do the right thing” Neglect: Passively allows condition to worsen Leads to: Chronic absenteeism / lateness, Reduced effort Increased error rate Namith Najeeb – PGP -15 -028 To solve employee dissatisfaction try to solve the cause of the satisfaction than trying to control or respond to different consequences of job dissatisfaction