Art of south and southeast asia before 1200

ART OF SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA BEFORE 1200 Question The rock-out architectures were built from rubble and dirt faced with dressed stone then covered with a shining white plaster made from powdered seashells and lime. The Great Stupa at Sanchi is a great example of rock-out architecture. One of the benefits of rock-out architecture is that they raised the level of circumambulation. The railings provided the physical and symbolic boundary between an inner, sacred area and the outer and profane world. They were generally strong and could be used as first line of protection in case of an attack from enemies. However the main drawback rock-out architecture was that their locations may reflect the social status of their donors.
Question 2
There are many sculptures that represent Hinduism but there is none which is more representative of Hinduism than the statues of Shiva Nataraja or Shiva as the lord of Dance. This was a form of perfected sculpture under the royal patronage of the south Indian Chola dynasty during the late 10th to 11th centuries. Queen Sembiyan Mahadevi was the architect behind the Chola version of the Dancing Shiva. The royal families were known not to associate themselves with some aspect of a deity, and the efforts of Mahadevi were vital in ensuring a bond between Chola state and Shiva Nataraja. Generally, the Dance of Shiva was regarded a dance of cosmic proportions that signified the universe’s cycle of death and rebirth. This in turn signified the liberation of the believer through Shiva’s compassion. Iconography is a very vital aspect of art and this sculpture showed Shiva with four arms dancing on the prostrate body of Apasmara. The right and the left arms signifies abhaya “ have no faar” and promise of liberation respectively.
Question 3
Indian temples northern and southern
Kandariya Mahadeva temple at Khajurabo was a typical style of the southern temple. The southern temples had a longitudinal axis and greatly expanded dimensions. Specifically, their superstructures were characterized by four-sided hollow pyramid. The front of Rajarajeshwara had a flat roof as opposed to the pyramidal roofs of the northern style. Each story of the southern temple was articulated by a large cornice while the exterior walls were ornamented with niches each holding a single statue. The northern temples were characterized by complex pillars with some having over 144 marble pillars. These pillars were all carved in. example include the golden temple of India.
Question 4
The Ananda Temple is an architectural wonder in a fusion of Mon and adopted Indian style of architecture. The building of this temple is regarded as a height of religious education that started during the construction of the Pohothanya temple in 1080 AD. The king at that time adopted the Theravada Buddhism which motivated him to present the teachings of Buddha to the people he was ruling through this temple. This resulted to the creation of mass religious enthusiasm hence legitimizing the king as the upholder of the Law. The Angkor was like a small city where Buddhist lived. It had twelve gates and pagodas at each of the four comers. The Buddhists who lived here had several monasteries and the king was the overall ruler. The king’s residence had two bells-gold and silver respectively-which were rung whenever an enemy approached. Whenever a disaster occurs, the king kneels down before the elephant image and blames himself. When King Jayavarman II climbed Mt. Kulen, he was accompanied by Brahmin who performed a ritual on the mountain to mark a relationship between Shiva and Jayavarman II. After this development, Jayavarman and kings that followed claimed the title of “ god-king”. The descendants of Jayavarman constructed a temple near Angkor and Rolous on which the gods dwell. This marked the political and religious center of the Khmer empire. In general, the king is was there to ensure the wellbeing of the people. Mamallapuram was also a site that ensured that the king exercised his duty to protect and enhance the religious beliefs of the people.
Work cited
Gardner, Helen, and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardners Art Through the Ages. Boston, Mass: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.