During the Neolithic revolution, there was a transition from the hunter-gatherer lifestyle to an agricultural lifestyle. The primary advantages of this revolution included surety of food availability and ease of sharing of knowledge (this is because people lived in a group). The primary disadvantages included problems with farming such as plant disease, drought and pests. The industrial revolution included the shifts from the animal-powered agriculture, manufacture by craftsmen and rural life to an urban society powered by advanced technology such as the use of fossil fuels (oil and coal). Advantages of the industrial revolution included wealth availability to many people and new job opportunities. Disadvantages included pollution and hiring of women and children at lower wages who worked in dangerous conditions.
Natural ecosystems offer a lot in terms of valuable ecosystem services to humankind. Services such wastes decomposition, control of disease and climate, crop pollination, and products like food and clean water are all as a result of natural ecosystems. Decomposition of wastes helps in cleaning the environment hence provision of environment that is suitable for living things. Nutrient cycles and crop pollination are essential in the production of food.
The sixth mass extinction is an event that began when the first modern people dispersed to various parts of the world about 100, 000 ago (phase one), and about 10, 000 ago when humans embraced agriculture (phase two). The major cause of this is humans who brought about massive changes in the environment by disrupting the environment wherever they went, causing other species to become extinct. The sixth extinction is still happening now.
Neoclassical economics focuses on the determination of outputs, prices and income distributions in the market via supply and demand. On the other hand, environmental economics is concerned with environmental issues.
Boyce, Joshua W. ” Differences in Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics: A Contrast of Resource Management and Sustainability of Forests.” (2009): 2-11.